International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xingwei; Cai, Yanpeng; Chen, Jiajun; Dai, Chao
2013-01-01
In this study, a GFIPMIP (grey-forecasting interval-parameter mixed-integer programming) approach was developed for supporting IEEM (integrated electric-environmental management) in Beijing. It was an attempt to incorporate an energy-forecasting model within a general modeling framework at the municipal level. The developed GFIPMIP model can not only forecast electric demands, but also reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of the IEEM system in Beijing. Moreover, it can address issues regarding power supply, and emission reduction of atmospheric pollutants and GHG (greenhouse gas). Optimal solutions were obtained related to power generation patterns and facility capacity expansion schemes under a series of system constraints. Two scenarios were analyzed based on multiple environmental policies. The results were useful for helping decision makers identify desired management strategies to guarantee the city's power supply and mitigate emissions of GHG and atmospheric pollutants. The results also suggested that the developed GFIPMIP model be applicable to similar engineering problems. - Highlights: • A grey-forecasting interval-parameter mixed integer programming (GFIPMIP) approach was developed. • It could reflect dynamic, interactive, and uncertain characteristics of an IEEM system. • The developed GFIPMIP approach was used for supporting IEEM system planning in Beijing. • Two scenarios were established based on different environmental policies and management targets. • Optimal schemes for power generation, energy supply, and environmental protection were identified
Domínguez, Luis F.
2010-12-01
This work introduces two algorithms for the solution of pure integer and mixed-integer bilevel programming problems by multiparametric programming techniques. The first algorithm addresses the integer case of the bilevel programming problem where integer variables of the outer optimization problem appear in linear or polynomial form in the inner problem. The algorithm employs global optimization techniques to convexify nonlinear terms generated by a reformulation linearization technique (RLT). A continuous multiparametric programming algorithm is then used to solve the reformulated convex inner problem. The second algorithm addresses the mixed-integer case of the bilevel programming problem where integer and continuous variables of the outer problem appear in linear or polynomial forms in the inner problem. The algorithm relies on the use of global multiparametric mixed-integer programming techniques at the inner optimization level. In both algorithms, the multiparametric solutions obtained are embedded in the outer problem to form a set of single-level (M)(I)(N)LP problems - which are then solved to global optimality using standard fixed-point (global) optimization methods. Numerical examples drawn from the open literature are presented to illustrate the proposed algorithms. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Domí nguez, Luis F.; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.
2010-01-01
continuous multiparametric programming algorithm is then used to solve the reformulated convex inner problem. The second algorithm addresses the mixed-integer case of the bilevel programming problem where integer and continuous variables of the outer problem
Conforti, Michele; Zambelli, Giacomo
2014-01-01
This book is an elegant and rigorous presentation of integer programming, exposing the subject’s mathematical depth and broad applicability. Special attention is given to the theory behind the algorithms used in state-of-the-art solvers. An abundance of concrete examples and exercises of both theoretical and real-world interest explore the wide range of applications and ramifications of the theory. Each chapter is accompanied by an expertly informed guide to the literature and special topics, rounding out the reader’s understanding and serving as a gateway to deeper study. Key topics include: formulations polyhedral theory cutting planes decomposition enumeration semidefinite relaxations Written by renowned experts in integer programming and combinatorial optimization, Integer Programming is destined to become an essential text in the field.
Integer programming theory, applications, and computations
Taha, Hamdy A
1975-01-01
Integer Programming: Theory, Applications, and Computations provides information pertinent to the theory, applications, and computations of integer programming. This book presents the computational advantages of the various techniques of integer programming.Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the general categorization of integer applications and explains the three fundamental techniques of integer programming. This text then explores the concept of implicit enumeration, which is general in a sense that it is applicable to any well-defined binary program. Other
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koa, A.S.; Chang, N.B. [University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States). Dept. for Civil & Environmental Engineering
2008-07-15
Energy supply and use is of fundamental importance to society. Although the interactions between energy and environment were originally local in character, they have now widened to cover regional and global issues, such as acid rain and the greenhouse effect. It is for this reason that there is a need for covering the direct and indirect economic and environmental impacts of energy acquisition, transport, production and use. In this paper, particular attention is directed to ways of resolving conflict between economic and environmental goals by encouraging a power plant to consider co-firing biomass and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal simultaneously. It aims at reducing the emission level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) in an uncertain environment, using the power plant in Michigan City, Indiana as an example. To assess the uncertainty by a comparative way both deterministic and grey nonlinear mixed integer programming (MIP) models were developed to minimize the net operating cost with respect to possible fuel combinations. It aims at generating the optimal portfolio of alternative fuels while maintaining the same electricity generation simultaneously. To case the solution procedure stepwise relaxation algorithm was developed for solving the grey nonlinear MIP model. Breakeven alternative fuel value can be identified in the post-optimization stage for decision-making. Research findings show that the inclusion of RDF does not exhibit comparative advantage in terms of the net cost, albeit relatively lower air pollution impact. Yet it can be sustained by a charge system, subsidy program, or emission credit as the price of coal increases over time.
Ko, Andi Setiady; Chang, Ni-Bin
2008-07-01
Energy supply and use is of fundamental importance to society. Although the interactions between energy and environment were originally local in character, they have now widened to cover regional and global issues, such as acid rain and the greenhouse effect. It is for this reason that there is a need for covering the direct and indirect economic and environmental impacts of energy acquisition, transport, production and use. In this paper, particular attention is directed to ways of resolving conflict between economic and environmental goals by encouraging a power plant to consider co-firing biomass and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal simultaneously. It aims at reducing the emission level of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in an uncertain environment, using the power plant in Michigan City, Indiana as an example. To assess the uncertainty by a comparative way both deterministic and grey nonlinear mixed integer programming (MIP) models were developed to minimize the net operating cost with respect to possible fuel combinations. It aims at generating the optimal portfolio of alternative fuels while maintaining the same electricity generation simultaneously. To ease the solution procedure stepwise relaxation algorithm was developed for solving the grey nonlinear MIP model. Breakeven alternative fuel value can be identified in the post-optimization stage for decision-making. Research findings show that the inclusion of RDF does not exhibit comparative advantage in terms of the net cost, albeit relatively lower air pollution impact. Yet it can be sustained by a charge system, subsidy program, or emission credit as the price of coal increases over time.
Applied Integer Programming Modeling and Solution
Chen, Der-San; Dang, Yu
2011-01-01
An accessible treatment of the modeling and solution of integer programming problems, featuring modern applications and software In order to fully comprehend the algorithms associated with integer programming, it is important to understand not only how algorithms work, but also why they work. Applied Integer Programming features a unique emphasis on this point, focusing on problem modeling and solution using commercial software. Taking an application-oriented approach, this book addresses the art and science of mathematical modeling related to the mixed integer programming (MIP) framework and
Domínguez, Luis F.
2012-06-25
An algorithm for the solution of convex multiparametric mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems arising in process engineering problems under uncertainty is introduced. The proposed algorithm iterates between a multiparametric nonlinear programming subproblem and a mixed-integer nonlinear programming subproblem to provide a series of parametric upper and lower bounds. The primal subproblem is formulated by fixing the integer variables and solved through a series of multiparametric quadratic programming (mp-QP) problems based on quadratic approximations of the objective function, while the deterministic master subproblem is formulated so as to provide feasible integer solutions for the next primal subproblem. To reduce the computational effort when infeasibilities are encountered at the vertices of the critical regions (CRs) generated by the primal subproblem, a simplicial approximation approach is used to obtain CRs that are feasible at each of their vertices. The algorithm terminates when there does not exist an integer solution that is better than the one previously used by the primal problem. Through a series of examples, the proposed algorithm is compared with a multiparametric mixed-integer outer approximation (mp-MIOA) algorithm to demonstrate its computational advantages. © 2012 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).
Linear and integer programming made easy
Hu, T C
2016-01-01
Linear and integer programming are fundamental toolkits for data and information science and technology, particularly in the context of today’s megatrends toward statistical optimization, machine learning, and big data analytics. Drawn from over 30 years of classroom teaching and applied research experience, this textbook provides a crisp and practical introduction to the basics of linear and integer programming. The authors’ approach is accessible to students from all fields of engineering, including operations research, statistics, machine learning, control system design, scheduling, formal verification, and computer vision. Readers will learn to cast hard combinatorial problems as mathematical programming optimizations, understand how to achieve formulations where the objective and constraints are linear, choose appropriate solution methods, and interpret results appropriately. •Provides a concise introduction to linear and integer programming, appropriate for undergraduates, graduates, a short cours...
Stochastic integer programming by dynamic programming
Lageweg, B.J.; Lenstra, J.K.; Rinnooy Kan, A.H.G.; Stougie, L.; Ermoliev, Yu.; Wets, R.J.B.
1988-01-01
Stochastic integer programming is a suitable tool for modeling hierarchical decision situations with combinatorial features. In continuation of our work on the design and analysis of heuristics for such problems, we now try to find optimal solutions. Dynamic programming techniques can be used to
A fixed recourse integer programming approach towards a ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Regardless of the success that linear programming and integer linear programming has had in applications in engineering, business and economics, one has to challenge the assumed reality that these optimization models represent. In this paper the certainty assumptions of an integer linear program application is ...
IESIP - AN IMPROVED EXPLORATORY SEARCH TECHNIQUE FOR PURE INTEGER LINEAR PROGRAMMING PROBLEMS
Fogle, F. R.
1994-01-01
IESIP, an Improved Exploratory Search Technique for Pure Integer Linear Programming Problems, addresses the problem of optimizing an objective function of one or more variables subject to a set of confining functions or constraints by a method called discrete optimization or integer programming. Integer programming is based on a specific form of the general linear programming problem in which all variables in the objective function and all variables in the constraints are integers. While more difficult, integer programming is required for accuracy when modeling systems with small numbers of components such as the distribution of goods, machine scheduling, and production scheduling. IESIP establishes a new methodology for solving pure integer programming problems by utilizing a modified version of the univariate exploratory move developed by Robert Hooke and T.A. Jeeves. IESIP also takes some of its technique from the greedy procedure and the idea of unit neighborhoods. A rounding scheme uses the continuous solution found by traditional methods (simplex or other suitable technique) and creates a feasible integer starting point. The Hook and Jeeves exploratory search is modified to accommodate integers and constraints and is then employed to determine an optimal integer solution from the feasible starting solution. The user-friendly IESIP allows for rapid solution of problems up to 10 variables in size (limited by DOS allocation). Sample problems compare IESIP solutions with the traditional branch-and-bound approach. IESIP is written in Borland's TURBO Pascal for IBM PC series computers and compatibles running DOS. Source code and an executable are provided. The main memory requirement for execution is 25K. This program is available on a 5.25 inch 360K MS DOS format diskette. IESIP was developed in 1990. IBM is a trademark of International Business Machines. TURBO Pascal is registered by Borland International.
Neutrosophic Integer Programming Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mai Mohamed
2017-02-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we introduce the integer programming in neutrosophic environment, by considering coffecients of problem as a triangulare neutrosophic numbers. The degrees of acceptance, indeterminacy and rejection of objectives are simultaneously considered.
Integer programming techniques for educational timetabling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fonseca, George H.G.; Santos, Haroldo G.; Carrano, Eduardo G.
2017-01-01
in recent studies in the field. This work presents new cuts and reformulations for the existing integer programming model for XHSTT. The proposed cuts improved hugely the linear relaxation of the formulation, leading to an average gap reduction of 32%. Applied to XHSTT-2014 instance set, the alternative...... formulation provided four new best known lower bounds and, used in a matheuristic framework, improved eleven best known solutions. The computational experiments also show that the resulting integer programming models from the proposed formulation are more effectively solved for most of the instances....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises
2017-01-01
-side strategy, defined as a general mixed-integer linear programming by taking into account two stages for proper charging of the storage units. This model is considered as a deterministic problem that aims to minimize operating costs and promote self-consumption based on 24-hour ahead forecast data...
Stochastic programming with integer recourse
van der Vlerk, Maarten Hendrikus
1995-01-01
In this thesis we consider two-stage stochastic linear programming models with integer recourse. Such models are at the intersection of two different branches of mathematical programming. On the one hand some of the model parameters are random, which places the problem in the field of stochastic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tessa Vanina Soetanto
2004-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a study about new heuristic algorithm performance compared to Mixed Integer Programming (MIP method in solving flowshop scheduling problem to reach minimum makespan. Performance appraisal is based on Efficiency Index (EI, Relative Error (RE and Elapsed Runtime. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Makalah ini menyajikan penelitian tentang performance algoritma heuristik Pour terhadap metode Mixed Integer Programming (MIP dalam menyelesaikan masalah penjadwalan flowshop dengan tujuan meminimalkan makespan. Penilaian performance dilakukan berdasarkan nilai Efficiency Index (EI, Relative Error (RE dan Elapsed Runtime. Kata kunci: flowshop, makespan, algoritma heuristik Pour, Mixed Integer Programming.
An overview of solution methods for multi-objective mixed integer linear programming programs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Kim Allan; Stidsen, Thomas Riis
Multiple objective mixed integer linear programming (MOMIP) problems are notoriously hard to solve to optimality, i.e. finding the complete set of non-dominated solutions. We will give an overview of existing methods. Among those are interactive methods, the two phases method and enumeration...... methods. In particular we will discuss the existing branch and bound approaches for solving multiple objective integer programming problems. Despite the fact that branch and bound methods has been applied successfully to integer programming problems with one criterion only a few attempts has been made...
A fuzzy mixed integer programming for marketing planning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Abolfazl Danaei
2014-03-01
Full Text Available One of the primary concerns to market a product is to find appropriate channel to target customers. The recent advances on information technology have created new products with tremendous opportunities. This paper presents a mixed integer programming technique based on McCarthy's 4PS to locate suitable billboards for marketing newly introduced IPHONE product. The paper considers two types of information including age and income and tries to find the best places such that potential consumers aged 25-35 with high income visit the billboards and the cost of advertisement is minimized. The model is formulated in terms of mixed integer programming and it has been applied for potential customers who live in city of Tabriz, Iran. Using a typical software package, the model detects appropriate places in various parts of the city.
Optimal Diet Planning for Eczema Patient Using Integer Programming
Zhen Sheng, Low; Sufahani, Suliadi
2018-04-01
Human diet planning is conducted by choosing appropriate food items that fulfill the nutritional requirements into the diet formulation. This paper discusses the application of integer programming to build the mathematical model of diet planning for eczema patients. The model developed is used to solve the diet problem of eczema patients from young age group. The integer programming is a scientific approach to select suitable food items, which seeks to minimize the costs, under conditions of meeting desired nutrient quantities, avoiding food allergens and getting certain foods into the diet that brings relief to the eczema conditions. This paper illustrates that the integer programming approach able to produce the optimal and feasible solution to deal with the diet problem of eczema patient.
A mixed integer linear program for an integrated fishery | Hasan ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... and labour allocation of quota based integrated fisheries. We demonstrate the workability of our model with a numerical example and sensitivity analysis based on data obtained from one of the major fisheries in New Zealand. Keywords: mixed integer linear program, fishing, trawler scheduling, processing, quotas ORiON: ...
Network interdiction and stochastic integer programming
2003-01-01
On March 15, 2002 we held a workshop on network interdiction and the more general problem of stochastic mixed integer programming at the University of California, Davis. Jesús De Loera and I co-chaired the event, which included presentations of on-going research and discussion. At the workshop, we decided to produce a volume of timely work on the topics. This volume is the result. Each chapter represents state-of-the-art research and all of them were refereed by leading investigators in the respective fields. Problems - sociated with protecting and attacking computer, transportation, and social networks gain importance as the world becomes more dep- dent on interconnected systems. Optimization models that address the stochastic nature of these problems are an important part of the research agenda. This work relies on recent efforts to provide methods for - dressing stochastic mixed integer programs. The book is organized with interdiction papers first and the stochastic programming papers in the second part....
Integer programming for the generalized high school timetabling problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kristiansen, Simon; Sørensen, Matias; Stidsen, Thomas Riis
2015-01-01
, the XHSTT format serves as a common ground for researchers within this area. This paper describes the first exact method capable of handling an arbitrary instance of the XHSTT format. The method is based on a mixed-integer linear programming (MIP) model, which is solved in two steps with a commercial...
Logic integer programming models for signaling networks.
Haus, Utz-Uwe; Niermann, Kathrin; Truemper, Klaus; Weismantel, Robert
2009-05-01
We propose a static and a dynamic approach to model biological signaling networks, and show how each can be used to answer relevant biological questions. For this, we use the two different mathematical tools of Propositional Logic and Integer Programming. The power of discrete mathematics for handling qualitative as well as quantitative data has so far not been exploited in molecular biology, which is mostly driven by experimental research, relying on first-order or statistical models. The arising logic statements and integer programs are analyzed and can be solved with standard software. For a restricted class of problems the logic models reduce to a polynomial-time solvable satisfiability algorithm. Additionally, a more dynamic model enables enumeration of possible time resolutions in poly-logarithmic time. Computational experiments are included.
Discovery of Boolean metabolic networks: integer linear programming based approach.
Qiu, Yushan; Jiang, Hao; Ching, Wai-Ki; Cheng, Xiaoqing
2018-04-11
Traditional drug discovery methods focused on the efficacy of drugs rather than their toxicity. However, toxicity and/or lack of efficacy are produced when unintended targets are affected in metabolic networks. Thus, identification of biological targets which can be manipulated to produce the desired effect with minimum side-effects has become an important and challenging topic. Efficient computational methods are required to identify the drug targets while incurring minimal side-effects. In this paper, we propose a graph-based computational damage model that summarizes the impact of enzymes on compounds in metabolic networks. An efficient method based on Integer Linear Programming formalism is then developed to identify the optimal enzyme-combination so as to minimize the side-effects. The identified target enzymes for known successful drugs are then verified by comparing the results with those in the existing literature. Side-effects reduction plays a crucial role in the study of drug development. A graph-based computational damage model is proposed and the theoretical analysis states the captured problem is NP-completeness. The proposed approaches can therefore contribute to the discovery of drug targets. Our developed software is available at " http://hkumath.hku.hk/~wkc/APBC2018-metabolic-network.zip ".
Domí nguez, Luis F.; Pistikopoulos, Efstratios N.
2012-01-01
An algorithm for the solution of convex multiparametric mixed-integer nonlinear programming problems arising in process engineering problems under uncertainty is introduced. The proposed algorithm iterates between a multiparametric nonlinear
Urselmann, Maren; Emmerich, Michael T. M.; Till, Jochen; Sand, Guido; Engell, Sebastian
2007-07-01
Engineering optimization often deals with large, mixed-integer search spaces with a rigid structure due to the presence of a large number of constraints. Metaheuristics, such as evolutionary algorithms (EAs), are frequently suggested as solution algorithms in such cases. In order to exploit the full potential of these algorithms, it is important to choose an adequate representation of the search space and to integrate expert-knowledge into the stochastic search operators, without adding unnecessary bias to the search. Moreover, hybridisation with mathematical programming techniques such as mixed-integer programming (MIP) based on a problem decomposition can be considered for improving algorithmic performance. In order to design problem-specific EAs it is desirable to have a set of design guidelines that specify properties of search operators and representations. Recently, a set of guidelines has been proposed that gives rise to so-called Metric-based EAs (MBEAs). Extended by the minimal moves mutation they allow for a generalization of EA with self-adaptive mutation strength in discrete search spaces. In this article, a problem-specific EA for process engineering task is designed, following the MBEA guidelines and minimal moves mutation. On the background of the application, the usefulness of the design framework is discussed, and further extensions and corrections proposed. As a case-study, a two-stage stochastic programming problem in chemical batch process scheduling is considered. The algorithm design problem can be viewed as the choice of a hierarchical decision structure, where on different layers of the decision process symmetries and similarities can be exploited for the design of minimal moves. After a discussion of the design approach and its instantiation for the case-study, the resulting problem-specific EA/MIP is compared to a straightforward application of a canonical EA/MIP and to a monolithic mathematical programming algorithm. In view of the
Towards Merging Binary Integer Programming Techniques with Genetic Algorithms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reza Zamani
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a framework based on merging a binary integer programming technique with a genetic algorithm. The framework uses both lower and upper bounds to make the employed mathematical formulation of a problem as tight as possible. For problems whose optimal solutions cannot be obtained, precision is traded with speed through substituting the integrality constrains in a binary integer program with a penalty. In this way, instead of constraining a variable u with binary restriction, u is considered as real number between 0 and 1, with the penalty of Mu(1-u, in which M is a large number. Values not near to the boundary extremes of 0 and 1 make the component of Mu(1-u large and are expected to be avoided implicitly. The nonbinary values are then converted to priorities, and a genetic algorithm can use these priorities to fill its initial pool for producing feasible solutions. The presented framework can be applied to many combinatorial optimization problems. Here, a procedure based on this framework has been applied to a scheduling problem, and the results of computational experiments have been discussed, emphasizing the knowledge generated and inefficiencies to be circumvented with this framework in future.
A Base Integer Programming Model and Benchmark Suite for Liner-Shipping Network Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brouer, Berit Dangaard; Alvarez, Fernando; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk
2014-01-01
. The potential for making cost-effective and energy-efficient liner-shipping networks using operations research (OR) is huge and neglected. The implementation of logistic planning tools based upon OR has enhanced performance of airlines, railways, and general transportation companies, but within the field......The liner-shipping network design problem is to create a set of nonsimple cyclic sailing routes for a designated fleet of container vessels that jointly transports multiple commodities. The objective is to maximize the revenue of cargo transport while minimizing the costs of operation...... sources of liner shipping for OR researchers in general. We describe and analyze the liner-shipping domain applied to network design and present a rich integer programming model based on services that constitute the fixed schedule of a liner shipping company. We prove the liner-shipping network design...
Bivium as a Mixed Integer Programming Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borghoff, Julia; Knudsen, Lars Ramkilde; Stolpe, Mathias
2009-01-01
over $GF(2)$ into a combinatorial optimization problem. We convert the Boolean equation system into an equation system over $\\mathbb{R}$ and formulate the problem of finding a $0$-$1$-valued solution for the system as a mixed-integer programming problem. This enables us to make use of several...
Smart-Grid Backbone Network Real-Time Delay Reduction via Integer Programming.
Pagadrai, Sasikanth; Yilmaz, Muhittin; Valluri, Pratyush
2016-08-01
This research investigates an optimal delay-based virtual topology design using integer linear programming (ILP), which is applied to the current backbone networks such as smart-grid real-time communication systems. A network traffic matrix is applied and the corresponding virtual topology problem is solved using the ILP formulations that include a network delay-dependent objective function and lightpath routing, wavelength assignment, wavelength continuity, flow routing, and traffic loss constraints. The proposed optimization approach provides an efficient deterministic integration of intelligent sensing and decision making, and network learning features for superior smart grid operations by adaptively responding the time-varying network traffic data as well as operational constraints to maintain optimal virtual topologies. A representative optical backbone network has been utilized to demonstrate the proposed optimization framework whose simulation results indicate that superior smart-grid network performance can be achieved using commercial networks and integer programming.
Optimization of Product Instantiation using Integer Programming
van den Broek, P.M.; Botterweck, Goetz; Jarzabek, Stan; Kishi, Tomoji
2010-01-01
We show that Integer Programming (IP) can be used as an optimization technique for the instantiation of products of feature models. This is done by showing that the constraints of feature models can be written in linear form. As particular IP technique, we use Gomory cutting planes. We have applied
An Improved Method for Solving Multiobjective Integer Linear Fractional Programming Problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Meriem Ait Mehdi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We describe an improvement of Chergui and Moulaï’s method (2008 that generates the whole efficient set of a multiobjective integer linear fractional program based on the branch and cut concept. The general step of this method consists in optimizing (maximizing without loss of generality one of the fractional objective functions over a subset of the original continuous feasible set; then if necessary, a branching process is carried out until obtaining an integer feasible solution. At this stage, an efficient cut is built from the criteria’s growth directions in order to discard a part of the feasible domain containing only nonefficient solutions. Our contribution concerns firstly the optimization process where a linear program that we define later will be solved at each step rather than a fractional linear program. Secondly, local ideal and nadir points will be used as bounds to prune some branches leading to nonefficient solutions. The computational experiments show that the new method outperforms the old one in all the treated instances.
Metamorphic Testing Integer Overflow Faults of Mission Critical Program: A Case Study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhanwei Hui
2013-01-01
Full Text Available For mission critical programs, integer overflow is one of the most dangerous faults. Different testing methods provide several effective ways to detect the defect. However, it is hard to validate the testing outputs, because the oracle of testing is not always available or too expensive to get, unless the program throws an exception obviously. In the present study, the authors conduct a case study, where the authors apply a metamorphic testing (MT method to detect the integer overflow defect and alleviate the oracle problem in testing critical program of Traffic Collision Avoidance System (TCAS. Experimental results show that, in revealing typical integer mutations, compared with traditional safety property testing method, MT with a novel symbolic metamorphic relation is more effective than the traditional method in some cases.
An actual load forecasting methodology by interval grey modeling based on the fractional calculus.
Yang, Yang; Xue, Dingyü
2017-07-17
The operation processes for thermal power plant are measured by the real-time data, and a large number of historical interval data can be obtained from the dataset. Within defined periods of time, the interval information could provide important information for decision making and equipment maintenance. Actual load is one of the most important parameters, and the trends hidden in the historical data will show the overall operation status of the equipments. However, based on the interval grey parameter numbers, the modeling and prediction process is more complicated than the one with real numbers. In order not lose any information, the geometric coordinate features are used by the coordinates of area and middle point lines in this paper, which are proved with the same information as the original interval data. The grey prediction model for interval grey number by the fractional-order accumulation calculus is proposed. Compared with integer-order model, the proposed method could have more freedom with better performance for modeling and prediction, which can be widely used in the modeling process and prediction for the small amount interval historical industry sequence samples. Copyright © 2017 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
New Approaches for Very Large-Scale Integer Programming
2016-06-24
DISTRIBUTION/ AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The focus of this project is new computational... heuristics for integer programs in order to rapidly improve dual bounds. 2. Choosing good branching variables in branch-and-bound algorithms for MIP. 3...programming, algorithms, parallel processing, machine learning, heuristics 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF
Grey Language Hesitant Fuzzy Group Decision Making Method Based on Kernel and Grey Scale.
Li, Qingsheng; Diao, Yuzhu; Gong, Zaiwu; Hu, Aqin
2018-03-02
Based on grey language multi-attribute group decision making, a kernel and grey scale scoring function is put forward according to the definition of grey language and the meaning of the kernel and grey scale. The function introduces grey scale into the decision-making method to avoid information distortion. This method is applied to the grey language hesitant fuzzy group decision making, and the grey correlation degree is used to sort the schemes. The effectiveness and practicability of the decision-making method are further verified by the industry chain sustainable development ability evaluation example of a circular economy. Moreover, its simplicity and feasibility are verified by comparing it with the traditional grey language decision-making method and the grey language hesitant fuzzy weighted arithmetic averaging (GLHWAA) operator integration method after determining the index weight based on the grey correlation.
Godin, Katelyn; Stapleton, Jackie; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Hanning, Rhona M; Leatherdale, Scott T
2015-10-22
Grey literature is an important source of information for large-scale review syntheses. However, there are many characteristics of grey literature that make it difficult to search systematically. Further, there is no 'gold standard' for rigorous systematic grey literature search methods and few resources on how to conduct this type of search. This paper describes systematic review search methods that were developed and applied to complete a case study systematic review of grey literature that examined guidelines for school-based breakfast programs in Canada. A grey literature search plan was developed to incorporate four different searching strategies: (1) grey literature databases, (2) customized Google search engines, (3) targeted websites, and (4) consultation with contact experts. These complementary strategies were used to minimize the risk of omitting relevant sources. Since abstracts are often unavailable in grey literature documents, items' abstracts, executive summaries, or table of contents (whichever was available) were screened. Screening of publications' full-text followed. Data were extracted on the organization, year published, who they were developed by, intended audience, goal/objectives of document, sources of evidence/resources cited, meals mentioned in the guidelines, and recommendations for program delivery. The search strategies for identifying and screening publications for inclusion in the case study review was found to be manageable, comprehensive, and intuitive when applied in practice. The four search strategies of the grey literature search plan yielded 302 potentially relevant items for screening. Following the screening process, 15 publications that met all eligibility criteria remained and were included in the case study systematic review. The high-level findings of the case study systematic review are briefly described. This article demonstrated a feasible and seemingly robust method for applying systematic search strategies to
50 Years of Integer Programming 1958-2008 From the Early Years to the State-of-the-Art
Jünger, Michael; Naddef, Denis
2010-01-01
In 1958, Ralph E. Gomory transformed the field of integer programming when he published a paper that described a cutting-plane algorithm for pure integer programs and announced that the method could be refined to give a finite algorithm for integer programming. In 2008, to commemorate the anniversary of this seminal paper, a special workshop celebrating fifty years of integer programming was held in Aussois, France, as part of the 12th Combinatorial Optimization Workshop. It contains reprints of key historical articles and written versions of survey lectures on six of the hottest topics in the
Split diversity in constrained conservation prioritization using integer linear programming.
Chernomor, Olga; Minh, Bui Quang; Forest, Félix; Klaere, Steffen; Ingram, Travis; Henzinger, Monika; von Haeseler, Arndt
2015-01-01
Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a measure of biodiversity based on the evolutionary history of species. Here, we discuss several optimization problems related to the use of PD, and the more general measure split diversity (SD), in conservation prioritization.Depending on the conservation goal and the information available about species, one can construct optimization routines that incorporate various conservation constraints. We demonstrate how this information can be used to select sets of species for conservation action. Specifically, we discuss the use of species' geographic distributions, the choice of candidates under economic pressure, and the use of predator-prey interactions between the species in a community to define viability constraints.Despite such optimization problems falling into the area of NP hard problems, it is possible to solve them in a reasonable amount of time using integer programming. We apply integer linear programming to a variety of models for conservation prioritization that incorporate the SD measure.We exemplarily show the results for two data sets: the Cape region of South Africa and a Caribbean coral reef community. Finally, we provide user-friendly software at http://www.cibiv.at/software/pda.
Optimal Allocation of Static Var Compensator via Mixed Integer Conic Programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Xiaohu [ORNL; Shi, Di [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute North America (GEIRI North America), California; Wang, Zhiwei [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute North America (GEIRI North America), California; Huang, Junhui [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute North America (GEIRI North America), California; Wang, Xu [Global Energy Interconnection Research Institute North America (GEIRI North America), California; Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)
2017-01-01
Shunt FACTS devices, such as, a Static Var Compensator (SVC), are capable of providing local reactive power compensation. They are widely used in the network to reduce the real power loss and improve the voltage profile. This paper proposes a planning model based on mixed integer conic programming (MICP) to optimally allocate SVCs in the transmission network considering load uncertainty. The load uncertainties are represented by a number of scenarios. Reformulation and linearization techniques are utilized to transform the original non-convex model into a convex second order cone programming (SOCP) model. Numerical case studies based on the IEEE 30-bus system demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed planning model.
FATCOP: A Fault Tolerant Condor-PVM Mixed Integer Program Solver
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Chen, Qun
1999-01-01
We describe FATCOP, a new parallel mixed integer program solver written in PVM. The implementation uses the Condor resource management system to provide a virtual machine composed of otherwise idle computers...
Mixed integer (0-1) fractional programming for decision support in paper production industry
Claassen, G.D.H.
2014-01-01
This paper presents an effective and efficient method for solving a special class of mixed integer fractional programming (FP) problems. We take a classical reformulation approach for continuous FP as a starting point and extend it for solving a more general class of mixed integer (0–1) fractional
Optimal placement of capacitors in a radial network using conic and mixed integer linear programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jabr, R.A. [Electrical, Computer and Communication Engineering Department, Notre Dame University, P.O. Box: 72, Zouk Mikhael, Zouk Mosbeh (Lebanon)
2008-06-15
This paper considers the problem of optimally placing fixed and switched type capacitors in a radial distribution network. The aim of this problem is to minimize the costs associated with capacitor banks, peak power, and energy losses whilst satisfying a pre-specified set of physical and technical constraints. The proposed solution is obtained using a two-phase approach. In phase-I, the problem is formulated as a conic program in which all nodes are candidates for placement of capacitor banks whose sizes are considered as continuous variables. A global solution of the phase-I problem is obtained using an interior-point based conic programming solver. Phase-II seeks a practical optimal solution by considering capacitor sizes as discrete variables. The problem in this phase is formulated as a mixed integer linear program based on minimizing the L1-norm of deviations from the phase-I state variable values. The solution to the phase-II problem is obtained using a mixed integer linear programming solver. The proposed method is validated via extensive comparisons with previously published results. (author)
Investigating Students’ Development of Learning Integer Concept and Integer Addition
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nenden Octavarulia Shanty
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This research aimed at investigating students’ development of learning integer concept and integer addition. The investigation was based on analyzing students’ works in solving the given mathematical problems in each instructional activity designed based on Realistic Mathematics Education (RME levels. Design research was chosen to achieve and to contribute in developing a local instruction theory for teaching and learning of integer concept and integer addition. In design research, the Hypothetical Learning Trajectory (HLT plays important role as a design and research instrument. It was designed in the phase of preliminary design and tested to three students of grade six OASIS International School, Ankara – Turkey. The result of the experiments showed that temperature in the thermometer context could stimulate students’ informal knowledge of integer concept. Furthermore, strategies and tools used by the students in comparing and relating two temperatures were gradually be developed into a more formal mathematics. The representation of line inside thermometer which then called the number line could bring the students to the last activity levels, namely rules for adding integer, and became the model for more formal reasoning. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that students’ learning integer concept and integer addition developed through RME levels.Keywords: integer concept, integer addition, Realistic Mathematics Education DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.7.2.3538.57-72
Designing fractional factorial split-plot experiments using integer programming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Capehart, Shay R.; Keha, Ahmet; Kulahci, Murat
2011-01-01
factorial (FF) design, with the restricted randomisation structure to account for the whole plots and subplots. We discuss the formulation of FFSP designs using integer programming (IP) to achieve various design criteria. We specifically look at the maximum number of clear two-factor interactions...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sergienko, I.V.; Golodnikov, A.N.
1984-01-01
This article applies the methods of decompositions, which are used to solve continuous linear problems, to integer and partially integer problems. The fall-vector method is used to solve the obtained coordinate problems. An algorithm of the fall-vector is described. The Kornai-Liptak decomposition principle is used to reduce the integer linear programming problem to integer linear programming problems of a smaller dimension and to a discrete coordinate problem with simple constraints
Schultz, R.; Stougie, L.; Vlerk, van der M.H.
1998-01-01
In this paper we present a framework for solving stochastic programs with complete integer recourse and discretely distributed right-hand side vector, using Gröbner basis methods from computational algebra to solve the numerous second-stage integer programs. Using structural properties of the
A Mixed Integer Linear Programming Model for the North Atlantic Aircraft Trajectory Planning
Sbihi , Mohammed; Rodionova , Olga; Delahaye , Daniel; Mongeau , Marcel
2015-01-01
International audience; This paper discusses the trajectory planning problem for ights in the North Atlantic oceanic airspace (NAT). We develop a mathematical optimization framework in view of better utilizing available capacity by re-routing aircraft. The model is constructed by discretizing the problem parameters. A Mixed integer linear program (MILP) is proposed. Based on the MILP a heuristic to solve real-size instances is also introduced
An Integer Programming Model for Multi-Echelon Supply Chain Decision Problem Considering Inventories
Harahap, Amin; Mawengkang, Herman; Siswadi; Effendi, Syahril
2018-01-01
In this paper we address a problem that is of significance to the industry, namely the optimal decision of a multi-echelon supply chain and the associated inventory systems. By using the guaranteed service approach to model the multi-echelon inventory system, we develop a mixed integer; programming model to simultaneously optimize the transportation, inventory and network structure of a multi-echelon supply chain. To solve the model we develop a direct search approach using a strategy of releasing nonbasic variables from their bounds, combined with the “active constraint” method. This strategy is used to force the appropriate non-integer basic variables to move to their neighbourhood integer points.
Zörnig, Peter
2015-08-01
We present integer programming models for some variants of the farthest string problem. The number of variables and constraints is substantially less than that of the integer linear programming models known in the literature. Moreover, the solution of the linear programming-relaxation contains only a small proportion of noninteger values, which considerably simplifies the rounding process. Numerical tests have shown excellent results, especially when a small set of long sequences is given.
Scheduling of head-dependent cascaded hydro systems: Mixed-integer quadratic programming approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catalao, J.P.S.; Pousinho, H.M.I.; Mendes, V.M.F.
2010-01-01
This paper is on the problem of short-term hydro scheduling, particularly concerning head-dependent cascaded hydro systems. We propose a novel mixed-integer quadratic programming approach, considering not only head-dependency, but also discontinuous operating regions and discharge ramping constraints. Thus, an enhanced short-term hydro scheduling is provided due to the more realistic modeling presented in this paper. Numerical results from two case studies, based on Portuguese cascaded hydro systems, illustrate the proficiency of the proposed approach.
A property of assignment type mixed integer linear programming problems
Benders, J.F.; van Nunen, J.A.E.E.
1982-01-01
In this paper we will proof that rather tight upper bounds can be given for the number of non-unique assignments that are achieved after solving the linear programming relaxation of some types of mixed integer linear assignment problems. Since in these cases the number of splitted assignments is
Scheduling of head-dependent cascaded hydro systems: Mixed-integer quadratic programming approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catalao, J.P.S.; Pousinho, H.M.I. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal)
2010-03-15
This paper is on the problem of short-term hydro scheduling, particularly concerning head-dependent cascaded hydro systems. We propose a novel mixed-integer quadratic programming approach, considering not only head-dependency, but also discontinuous operating regions and discharge ramping constraints. Thus, an enhanced short-term hydro scheduling is provided due to the more realistic modeling presented in this paper. Numerical results from two case studies, based on Portuguese cascaded hydro systems, illustrate the proficiency of the proposed approach. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pour, Shahrzad M.; Drake, John H.; Ejlertsen, Lena Secher
2017-01-01
A railway signaling system is a complex and interdependent system which should ensure the safe operation of trains. We introduce and address a mixed integer optimisation model for the preventive signal maintenance crew scheduling problem in the Danish railway system. The problem contains many...... to feed as ‘warm start’ solutions to a Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) solver for further optimisation. We apply the CP/MIP framework to a section of the Danish rail network and benchmark our results against both direct application of a MIP solver and modelling the problem as a Constraint Optimisation...
The use of mixed-integer programming for inverse treatment planning with pre-defined field segments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bednarz, Greg; Michalski, Darek; Houser, Chris; Huq, M. Saiful; Xiao Ying; Rani, Pramila Anne; Galvin, James M.
2002-01-01
Complex intensity patterns generated by traditional beamlet-based inverse treatment plans are often very difficult to deliver. In the approach presented in this work the intensity maps are controlled by pre-defining field segments to be used for dose optimization. A set of simple rules was used to define a pool of allowable delivery segments and the mixed-integer programming (MIP) method was used to optimize segment weights. The optimization problem was formulated by combining real variables describing segment weights with a set of binary variables, used to enumerate voxels in targets and critical structures. The MIP method was compared to the previously used Cimmino projection algorithm. The field segmentation approach was compared to an inverse planning system with a traditional beamlet-based beam intensity optimization. In four complex cases of oropharyngeal cancer the segmental inverse planning produced treatment plans, which competed with traditional beamlet-based IMRT plans. The mixed-integer programming provided mechanism for imposition of dose-volume constraints and allowed for identification of the optimal solution for feasible problems. Additional advantages of the segmental technique presented here are: simplified dosimetry, quality assurance and treatment delivery. (author)
Penempatan Optimal Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) Dengan Integer Programming
Amrulloh, Yunan Helmy
2013-01-01
Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU) merupakan peralatan yang mampu memberikan pengukuran fasor tegangan dan arus secara real-time. PMU dapat digunakan untuk monitoring, proteksi dan kontrol pada sistem tenaga listrik. Tugas akhir ini membahas penempatan PMU secara optimal berdasarkan topologi jaringan sehingga sistem tenaga listrik dapat diobservasi. Penempatan optimal PMU dirumuskan sebagai masalah Binary Integer Programming (BIP) yang akan memberikan variabel dengan pilihan nilai (0,1) yang menu...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alin Cristian Ioan
2010-03-01
Full Text Available This paper solves in a different way the problem of maximization of the total utility using the linear programming in integer numbers. The author uses the diofantic equations (equations in integers numbers and after a decomposing in different cases, he obtains the maximal utility.
GreyGuide, GreyNet’s web access portal and lobby for change in Grey Literature
Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); Biagioni, Stefania (ISTI-CNR); Carlesi, Carlo (ISTI-CNR); Ponti, Roberto (ISTI-CNR); Stock, Christiane (Inist-CNRS); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service
2015-01-01
In December 2013, the GreyGuide was formerly launched as an online forum and repository of good practice in grey literature. The project partners then turned to the acquisition of both proposed and published good practices. During this same timeframe, GreyNet – one of the project partners – welcomed far reaching developments in its infrastructure. Three new committees were established alongside its Program Committee in line with GreyNet’s fourfold mission dedicated to research, publication, o...
Heuristic Methods of Integer Programming and Its Applications in Economics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dominika Crnjac Milić
2010-12-01
Full Text Available A short overview of the results related to integer programming is described in the introductory part of this paper. Furthermore, there is a list of literature related to this field. The main part of the paper analyses the Heuristic method which yields a very fast result without the use of significant mathematical tools.
Equitably Distributing Quality of Marine Security Guards Using Integer Programming
2013-03-01
ARB BALMOD COM DoD DoS E HAF HQ 10 IP IQ LP MOS MCESG MSG MSGAT NLP NMC OSAB PCS PP&O Q RSO SAl SD SE SNCO T-ODP LIST OF...and Eurasia 2 Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates India and the Middle East 3 Bangkok, Thailand East Asia and Pacific 4 Fort Lauderdale, Florida South...integer, goal, and quadratic programming. LP models and nonlinear programming ( NLP ) models are very similar in model development for both maximizing
Zu, Xianghuan; Yang, Chuanlei; Wang, Hechun; Wang, Yinyan
2018-01-01
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is one of the main methods of reducing NOX emissions and has been widely used in marine diesel engines. This paper proposes an optimized comprehensive assessment method based on multi-objective grey situation decision theory, grey relation theory and grey entropy analysis to evaluate the performance and optimize rate determination of EGR, which currently lack clear theoretical guidance. First, multi-objective grey situation decision theory is used to establish the initial decision-making model according to the main EGR parameters. The optimal compromise between diesel engine combustion and emission performance is transformed into a decision-making target weight problem. After establishing the initial model and considering the characteristics of EGR under different conditions, an optimized target weight algorithm based on grey relation theory and grey entropy analysis is applied to generate the comprehensive evaluation and decision-making model. Finally, the proposed method is successfully applied to a TBD234V12 turbocharged diesel engine, and the results clearly illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method for providing theoretical support and a reference for further EGR optimization.
An improved exploratory search technique for pure integer linear programming problems
Fogle, F. R.
1990-01-01
The development is documented of a heuristic method for the solution of pure integer linear programming problems. The procedure draws its methodology from the ideas of Hooke and Jeeves type 1 and 2 exploratory searches, greedy procedures, and neighborhood searches. It uses an efficient rounding method to obtain its first feasible integer point from the optimal continuous solution obtained via the simplex method. Since this method is based entirely on simple addition or subtraction of one to each variable of a point in n-space and the subsequent comparison of candidate solutions to a given set of constraints, it facilitates significant complexity improvements over existing techniques. It also obtains the same optimal solution found by the branch-and-bound technique in 44 of 45 small to moderate size test problems. Two example problems are worked in detail to show the inner workings of the method. Furthermore, using an established weighted scheme for comparing computational effort involved in an algorithm, a comparison of this algorithm is made to the more established and rigorous branch-and-bound method. A computer implementation of the procedure, in PC compatible Pascal, is also presented and discussed.
Integer programming of cement distribution by train
Indarsih
2018-01-01
Cement industry in Central Java distributes cement by train to meet daily demand in Yogyakarta and Central Java area. There are five destination stations. For each destination station, there is a warehouse to load cements. Decision maker of cement industry have a plan to redesign the infrastructure and transportation system. The aim is to determine how many locomotives, train wagons, and containers and how to arrange train schedules with subject to the delivery time. For this purposes, we consider an integer programming to minimize the total of operational cost. Further, we will discuss a case study and the solution the problem can be calculated by LINGO software.
Binary integer programming solution for troubleshooting with dependent actions
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Lín, Václav
2017-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 3 (2017), s. 493-512 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : binary integer programming * decision-theoretic troubleshooting Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics OBOR OECD: Computer sciences, information science, bioinformathics (hardware development to be 2.2, social aspect to be 5.8) Impact factor: 0.379, year: 2016 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2017/MTR/lin-0476547.pdf
A mixed integer program to model spatial wildfire behavior and suppression placement decisions
Erin J. Belval; Yu Wei; Michael. Bevers
2015-01-01
Wildfire suppression combines multiple objectives and dynamic fire behavior to form a complex problem for decision makers. This paper presents a mixed integer program designed to explore integrating spatial fire behavior and suppression placement decisions into a mathematical programming framework. Fire behavior and suppression placement decisions are modeled using...
Relaxation and decomposition methods for mixed integer nonlinear programming
Nowak, Ivo; Bank, RE
2005-01-01
This book presents a comprehensive description of efficient methods for solving nonconvex mixed integer nonlinear programs, including several numerical and theoretical results, which are presented here for the first time. It contains many illustrations and an up-to-date bibliography. Because on the emphasis on practical methods, as well as the introduction into the basic theory, the book is accessible to a wide audience. It can be used both as a research and as a graduate text.
Mixed integer linear programming model for dynamic supplier selection problem considering discounts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adi Wicaksono Purnawan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Supplier selection is one of the most important elements in supply chain management. This function involves evaluation of many factors such as, material costs, transportation costs, quality, delays, supplier capacity, storage capacity and others. Each of these factors varies with time, therefore, supplier identified for one period is not necessarily be same for the next period to supply the same product. So, mixed integer linear programming (MILP was developed to overcome the dynamic supplier selection problem (DSSP. In this paper, a mixed integer linear programming model is built to solve the lot-sizing problem with multiple suppliers, multiple periods, multiple products and quantity discounts. The buyer has to make a decision for some products which will be supplied by some suppliers for some periods cosidering by discount. To validate the MILP model with randomly generated data. The model is solved by Lingo 16.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Animesh Biswas
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with fuzzy goal programming approach to solve fuzzy linear bilevel integer programming problems with fuzzy probabilistic constraints following Pareto distribution and Frechet distribution. In the proposed approach a new chance constrained programming methodology is developed from the view point of managing those probabilistic constraints in a hybrid fuzzy environment. A method of defuzzification of fuzzy numbers using ?-cut has been adopted to reduce the problem into a linear bilevel integer programming problem. The individual optimal value of the objective of each DM is found in isolation to construct the fuzzy membership goals. Finally, fuzzy goal programming approach is used to achieve maximum degree of each of the membership goals by minimizing under deviational variables in the decision making environment. To demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed approach, a numerical example is provided.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Toke Koldborg; Kjærsgaard, Niels Christian
Slaughterhouses are major players in the pork supply chain, and supply and demand must be matched in order to generate the highest proﬁt. In particular, carcasses must be sorted in order to produce the “right” ﬁnal products from the “right” carcasses. We develop a mixed-integer programming (MIP) ...... at slaughterhouses. Finally, we comment on the expected effect of variations in the raw material supply and the demand as well as future research concerning joint modelling of supply chain aspects.......Slaughterhouses are major players in the pork supply chain, and supply and demand must be matched in order to generate the highest proﬁt. In particular, carcasses must be sorted in order to produce the “right” ﬁnal products from the “right” carcasses. We develop a mixed-integer programming (MIP...
An Improved Search Approach for Solving Non-Convex Mixed-Integer Non Linear Programming Problems
Sitopu, Joni Wilson; Mawengkang, Herman; Syafitri Lubis, Riri
2018-01-01
The nonlinear mathematical programming problem addressed in this paper has a structure characterized by a subset of variables restricted to assume discrete values, which are linear and separable from the continuous variables. The strategy of releasing nonbasic variables from their bounds, combined with the “active constraint” method, has been developed. This strategy is used to force the appropriate non-integer basic variables to move to their neighbourhood integer points. Successful implementation of these algorithms was achieved on various test problems.
Determining on-fault earthquake magnitude distributions from integer programming
Geist, Eric L.; Parsons, Thomas E.
2018-01-01
Earthquake magnitude distributions among faults within a fault system are determined from regional seismicity and fault slip rates using binary integer programming. A synthetic earthquake catalog (i.e., list of randomly sampled magnitudes) that spans millennia is first formed, assuming that regional seismicity follows a Gutenberg-Richter relation. Each earthquake in the synthetic catalog can occur on any fault and at any location. The objective is to minimize misfits in the target slip rate for each fault, where slip for each earthquake is scaled from its magnitude. The decision vector consists of binary variables indicating which locations are optimal among all possibilities. Uncertainty estimates in fault slip rates provide explicit upper and lower bounding constraints to the problem. An implicit constraint is that an earthquake can only be located on a fault if it is long enough to contain that earthquake. A general mixed-integer programming solver, consisting of a number of different algorithms, is used to determine the optimal decision vector. A case study is presented for the State of California, where a 4 kyr synthetic earthquake catalog is created and faults with slip ≥3 mm/yr are considered, resulting in >106 variables. The optimal magnitude distributions for each of the faults in the system span a rich diversity of shapes, ranging from characteristic to power-law distributions.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ren, Jingzheng; Tan, Shiyu; Dong, Lichun
2013-01-01
demand, and the production capacity have been considered as mutative variables, then an improved model in which some parameters are not constant has been developed and a new method to solve the grey linear programming has been proposed. In the grey programming model, the value of credibility can...
A Branch and Bound Algorithm for a Class of Biobjective Mixed Integer Programs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stidsen, Thomas Riis; Andersen, Kim Allan; Dammann, Bernd
2014-01-01
there is the complicating factor that some of the variables are required to be integral. The resulting class of problems is named multiobjective mixed integer programming (MOMIP) problems. Solving these kinds of optimization problems exactly requires a method that can generate the whole set of nondominated points (the...... Pareto-optimal front). In this paper, we first give a survey of the newly developed branch and bound methods for solving MOMIP problems. After that, we propose a new branch and bound method for solving a subclass of MOMIP problems, where only two objectives are allowed, the integer variables are binary......, and one of the two objectives has only integer variables. The proposed method is able to find the full set of nondominated points. It is tested on a large number of problem instances, from six different classes of MOMIP problems. The results reveal that the developed biobjective branch and bound method...
A Mixed Integer Programming for Port Anzali Development Plan
Mahdieh Allahviranloo
2009-01-01
This paper introduces a mixed integer programming model to find the optimum development plan for port Anzali. The model minimizes total system costs taking into account both port infrastructure costs and shipping costs. Due to the multipurpose function of the port, the model consists of 1020 decision variables and 2490 constraints. Results of the model determine the optimum number of berths that should be constructed in each period and for each type of cargo. In addition to, the results of se...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Song, Hyun-Seob; Goldberg, Noam; Mahajan, Ashutosh; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami
2017-03-27
Elementary (flux) modes (EMs) have served as a valuable tool for investigating structural and functional properties of metabolic networks. Identification of the full set of EMs in genome-scale networks remains challenging due to combinatorial explosion of EMs in complex networks. It is often, however, that only a small subset of relevant EMs needs to be known, for which optimization-based sequential computation is a useful alternative. Most of the currently available methods along this line are based on the iterative use of mixed integer linear programming (MILP), the effectiveness of which significantly deteriorates as the number of iterations builds up. To alleviate the computational burden associated with the MILP implementation, we here present a novel optimization algorithm termed alternate integer linear programming (AILP). Results: Our algorithm was designed to iteratively solve a pair of integer programming (IP) and linear programming (LP) to compute EMs in a sequential manner. In each step, the IP identifies a minimal subset of reactions, the deletion of which disables all previously identified EMs. Thus, a subsequent LP solution subject to this reaction deletion constraint becomes a distinct EM. In cases where no feasible LP solution is available, IP-derived reaction deletion sets represent minimal cut sets (MCSs). Despite the additional computation of MCSs, AILP achieved significant time reduction in computing EMs by orders of magnitude. The proposed AILP algorithm not only offers a computational advantage in the EM analysis of genome-scale networks, but also improves the understanding of the linkage between EMs and MCSs.
He, Li; Huang, Guo-He; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Lu, Hong-Wei
2009-01-01
The previous inexact mixed-integer linear programming (IMILP) method can only tackle problems with coefficients of the objective function and constraints being crisp intervals, while the existing inexact mixed-integer semi-infinite programming (IMISIP) method can only deal with single-objective programming problems as it merely allows the number of constraints to be infinite. This study proposes, an inexact mixed-integer bi-infinite programming (IMIBIP) method by incorporating the concept of functional intervals into the programming framework. Different from the existing methods, the IMIBIP can tackle the inexact programming problems that contain both infinite objectives and constraints. The developed method is applied to capacity planning of waste management systems under a variety of uncertainties. Four scenarios are considered for comparing the solutions of IMIBIP with those of IMILP. The results indicate that reasonable solutions can be generated by the IMIBIP method. Compared with IMILP, the system cost from IMIBIP would be relatively high since the fluctuating market factors are considered; however, the IMILP solutions are associated with a raised system reliability level and a reduced constraint violation risk level.
A prediction method based on grey system theory in equipment condition based maintenance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Shengyuan; Yan, Shengyuan; Zhang, Hongguo; Zhang, Zhijian; Peng, Minjun; Yang, Ming
2007-01-01
Grey prediction is a modeling method based on historical or present, known or indefinite information, which can be used for forecasting the development of the eigenvalues of the targeted equipment system and setting up the model by using less information. In this paper, the postulate of grey system theory, which includes the grey generating, the sorts of grey generating and the grey forecasting model, is introduced first. The concrete application process, which includes the grey prediction modeling, grey prediction, error calculation, equal dimension and new information approach, is introduced secondly. Application of a so-called 'Equal Dimension and New Information' (EDNI) technology in grey system theory is adopted in an application case, aiming at improving the accuracy of prediction without increasing the amount of calculation by replacing old data with new ones. The proposed method can provide a new way for solving the problem of eigenvalue data exploding in equal distance effectively, short time interval and real time prediction. The proposed method, which was based on historical or present, known or indefinite information, was verified by the vibration prediction of induced draft fan of a boiler of the Yantai Power Station in China, and the results show that the proposed method based on grey system theory is simple and provides a high accuracy in prediction. So, it is very useful and significant to the controlling and controllable management in safety production. (authors)
Canepa, Edward S.; Claudel, Christian G.
2012-01-01
This article presents a new mixed integer programming formulation of the traffic density estimation problem in highways modeled by the Lighthill Whitham Richards equation. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using an Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation result in linear constraints, albeit with unknown integers. We then pose the problem of estimating the density at the initial time given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then present a numerical implementation of the method using experimental flow and probe data obtained during Mobile Century experiment. © 2012 IEEE.
Canepa, Edward S.
2012-09-01
This article presents a new mixed integer programming formulation of the traffic density estimation problem in highways modeled by the Lighthill Whitham Richards equation. We first present an equivalent formulation of the problem using an Hamilton-Jacobi equation. Then, using a semi-analytic formula, we show that the model constraints resulting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equation result in linear constraints, albeit with unknown integers. We then pose the problem of estimating the density at the initial time given incomplete and inaccurate traffic data as a Mixed Integer Program. We then present a numerical implementation of the method using experimental flow and probe data obtained during Mobile Century experiment. © 2012 IEEE.
Shape-based grey-level image interpolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keh-Shih Chuang; Chun-Yuan Chen; Ching-Kai Yeh
1999-01-01
The three-dimensional (3D) object data obtained from a CT scanner usually have unequal sampling frequencies in the x-, y- and z-directions. Generally, the 3D data are first interpolated between slices to obtain isotropic resolution, reconstructed, then operated on using object extraction and display algorithms. The traditional grey-level interpolation introduces a layer of intermediate substance and is not suitable for objects that are very different from the opposite background. The shape-based interpolation method transfers a pixel location to a parameter related to the object shape and the interpolation is performed on that parameter. This process is able to achieve a better interpolation but its application is limited to binary images only. In this paper, we present an improved shape-based interpolation method for grey-level images. The new method uses a polygon to approximate the object shape and performs the interpolation using polygon vertices as references. The binary images representing the shape of the object were first generated via image segmentation on the source images. The target object binary image was then created using regular shape-based interpolation. The polygon enclosing the object for each slice can be generated from the shape of that slice. We determined the relative location in the source slices of each pixel inside the target polygon using the vertices of a polygon as the reference. The target slice grey-level was interpolated from the corresponding source image pixels. The image quality of this interpolation method is better and the mean squared difference is smaller than with traditional grey-level interpolation. (author)
Bi-objective integer programming for RNA secondary structure prediction with pseudoknots.
Legendre, Audrey; Angel, Eric; Tahi, Fariza
2018-01-15
RNA structure prediction is an important field in bioinformatics, and numerous methods and tools have been proposed. Pseudoknots are specific motifs of RNA secondary structures that are difficult to predict. Almost all existing methods are based on a single model and return one solution, often missing the real structure. An alternative approach would be to combine different models and return a (small) set of solutions, maximizing its quality and diversity in order to increase the probability that it contains the real structure. We propose here an original method for predicting RNA secondary structures with pseudoknots, based on integer programming. We developed a generic bi-objective integer programming algorithm allowing to return optimal and sub-optimal solutions optimizing simultaneously two models. This algorithm was then applied to the combination of two known models of RNA secondary structure prediction, namely MEA and MFE. The resulting tool, called BiokoP, is compared with the other methods in the literature. The results show that the best solution (structure with the highest F 1 -score) is, in most cases, given by BiokoP. Moreover, the results of BiokoP are homogeneous, regardless of the pseudoknot type or the presence or not of pseudoknots. Indeed, the F 1 -scores are always higher than 70% for any number of solutions returned. The results obtained by BiokoP show that combining the MEA and the MFE models, as well as returning several optimal and several sub-optimal solutions, allow to improve the prediction of secondary structures. One perspective of our work is to combine better mono-criterion models, in particular to combine a model based on the comparative approach with the MEA and the MFE models. This leads to develop in the future a new multi-objective algorithm to combine more than two models. BiokoP is available on the EvryRNA platform: https://EvryRNA.ibisc.univ-evry.fr .
Poos, Alexandra M; Maicher, André; Dieckmann, Anna K; Oswald, Marcus; Eils, Roland; Kupiec, Martin; Luke, Brian; König, Rainer
2016-06-02
Understanding telomere length maintenance mechanisms is central in cancer biology as their dysregulation is one of the hallmarks for immortalization of cancer cells. Important for this well-balanced control is the transcriptional regulation of the telomerase genes. We integrated Mixed Integer Linear Programming models into a comparative machine learning based approach to identify regulatory interactions that best explain the discrepancy of telomerase transcript levels in yeast mutants with deleted regulators showing aberrant telomere length, when compared to mutants with normal telomere length. We uncover novel regulators of telomerase expression, several of which affect histone levels or modifications. In particular, our results point to the transcription factors Sum1, Hst1 and Srb2 as being important for the regulation of EST1 transcription, and we validated the effect of Sum1 experimentally. We compiled our machine learning method leading to a user friendly package for R which can straightforwardly be applied to similar problems integrating gene regulator binding information and expression profiles of samples of e.g. different phenotypes, diseases or treatments. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Godin, Katelyn M; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I; Hanning, Rhona M; Stapleton, Jackie; Leatherdale, Scott T
2017-06-01
School breakfast programs are widespread and serve varying objectives regarding youth health promotion. Evidence-based guidelines for breakfast programs may be important in maximizing their effectiveness related to student outcomes, yet it is unclear what is available in Canada. A systematic review was conducted to identify and compare Canadian guidelines related to breakfast programs. Data sources included grey literature databases, customized search engines, targeted websites, and content expert consultations. Eligible guidelines met the following criteria: government and nongovernment sources at the federal and provincial/territorial levels, current version, and intended for program coordinators. Recommendations for program delivery were extracted, categorized, and mapped onto the 4 environments outlined in the ANGELO framework, and they were classified as "common" or "inconsistent" across guidelines. Fifteen sets of guidelines were included. No guidelines were available from federal or territorial governments and 4 provincial governments. There were few references to peer-reviewed literature within the guidelines and despite many common recommendations for program delivery, conflicting recommendations were also identified. Potential barriers to program participation, including a lack of consideration of allergies and other dietary restrictions, were identified. Future research should identify how guidelines are implemented and evaluate what effect their implementation has on program delivery and student outcomes.
Integers in number systems with positive and negative quadratic Pisot base
Masáková, Zuzana; Vávra, Tomáš
2013-01-01
We consider numeration systems with base $\\beta$ and $-\\beta$, for quadratic Pisot numbers $\\beta$ and focus on comparing the combinatorial structure of the sets $\\Z_\\beta$ and $\\Z_{-\\beta}$ of numbers with integer expansion in base $\\beta$, resp. $-\\beta$. Our main result is the comparison of languages of infinite words $u_\\beta$ and $u_{-\\beta}$ coding the ordering of distances between consecutive $\\beta$- and $(-\\beta)$-integers. It turns out that for a class of roots $\\beta$ of $x^2-mx-m$...
Mixed Integer Programming and Heuristic Scheduling for Space Communication
Lee, Charles H.; Cheung, Kar-Ming
2013-01-01
Optimal planning and scheduling for a communication network was created where the nodes within the network are communicating at the highest possible rates while meeting the mission requirements and operational constraints. The planning and scheduling problem was formulated in the framework of Mixed Integer Programming (MIP) to introduce a special penalty function to convert the MIP problem into a continuous optimization problem, and to solve the constrained optimization problem using heuristic optimization. The communication network consists of space and ground assets with the link dynamics between any two assets varying with respect to time, distance, and telecom configurations. One asset could be communicating with another at very high data rates at one time, and at other times, communication is impossible, as the asset could be inaccessible from the network due to planetary occultation. Based on the network's geometric dynamics and link capabilities, the start time, end time, and link configuration of each view period are selected to maximize the communication efficiency within the network. Mathematical formulations for the constrained mixed integer optimization problem were derived, and efficient analytical and numerical techniques were developed to find the optimal solution. By setting up the problem using MIP, the search space for the optimization problem is reduced significantly, thereby speeding up the solution process. The ratio of the dimension of the traditional method over the proposed formulation is approximately an order N (single) to 2*N (arraying), where N is the number of receiving antennas of a node. By introducing a special penalty function, the MIP problem with non-differentiable cost function and nonlinear constraints can be converted into a continuous variable problem, whose solution is possible.
Using Integer Programming for Airport Service Planning in Staff Scheduling
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
W.H. Ip
2010-09-01
Full Text Available Reliability and safety in flight is extremely necessary and that depend on the adoption of proper maintenance system. Therefore, it is essential for aircraft maintenance companies to perform the manpower scheduling efficiently. One of the objectives of this paper is to provide an Integer Programming approach to determine the optimal solutions to aircraft maintenance planning and scheduling and hence the planning and scheduling processes can become more efficient and effective. Another objective is to develop a set of computational schedules for maintenance manpower to cover all scheduled flights. In this paper, a sequential methodology consisting of 3 stages is proposed. They are initial maintenance demand schedule, the maintenance pairing and the maintenance group(s assignment. Since scheduling would split up into different stages, different mathematical techniques have been adopted to cater for their own problem characteristics. Microsoft Excel would be used. Results from the first stage and second stage would be inputted into integer programming model using Microsoft Excel Solver to find the optimal solution. Also, Microsoft Excel VBA is used for devising a scheduling system in order to reduce the manual process and provide a user friendly interface. For the results, all can be obtained optimal solution and the computation time is reasonable and acceptable. Besides, the comparison of the peak time and non-peak time is discussed.
Enhanced index tracking modeling in portfolio optimization with mixed-integer programming z approach
Siew, Lam Weng; Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah Hj.; Ismail, Hamizun bin
2014-09-01
Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of portfolio management in stock market investment. Enhanced index tracking aims to construct an optimal portfolio to generate excess return over the return achieved by the stock market index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index. The objective of this paper is to construct an optimal portfolio using mixed-integer programming model which adopts regression approach in order to generate higher portfolio mean return than stock market index return. In this study, the data consists of 24 component stocks in Malaysia market index which is FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index from January 2010 until December 2012. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio of mixed-integer programming model is able to generate higher mean return than FTSE Bursa Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Composite Index return with only selecting 30% out of the total stock market index components.
Integer and combinatorial optimization
Nemhauser, George L
1999-01-01
Rave reviews for INTEGER AND COMBINATORIAL OPTIMIZATION ""This book provides an excellent introduction and survey of traditional fields of combinatorial optimization . . . It is indeed one of the best and most complete texts on combinatorial optimization . . . available. [And] with more than 700 entries, [it] has quite an exhaustive reference list.""-Optima ""A unifying approach to optimization problems is to formulate them like linear programming problems, while restricting some or all of the variables to the integers. This book is an encyclopedic resource for such f
Applications and algorithms for mixed integer nonlinear programming
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leyffer, Sven; Munson, Todd; Linderoth, Jeff; Luedtke, James; Miller, Andrew
2009-01-01
The mathematical modeling of systems often requires the use of both nonlinear and discrete components. Discrete decision variables model dichotomies, discontinuities, and general logical relationships. Nonlinear functions are required to accurately represent physical properties such as pressure, stress, temperature, and equilibrium. Problems involving both discrete variables and nonlinear constraint functions are known as mixed-integer nonlinear programs (MINLPs) and are among the most challenging computational optimization problems faced by researchers and practitioners. In this paper, we describe relevant scientific applications that are naturally modeled as MINLPs, we provide an overview of available algorithms and software, and we describe ongoing methodological advances for solving MINLPs. These algorithmic advances are making increasingly larger instances of this important family of problems tractable.
Lyubetsky, Vassily; Gershgorin, Roman; Gorbunov, Konstantin
2017-12-06
Chromosome structure is a very limited model of the genome including the information about its chromosomes such as their linear or circular organization, the order of genes on them, and the DNA strand encoding a gene. Gene lengths, nucleotide composition, and intergenic regions are ignored. Although highly incomplete, such structure can be used in many cases, e.g., to reconstruct phylogeny and evolutionary events, to identify gene synteny, regulatory elements and promoters (considering highly conserved elements), etc. Three problems are considered; all assume unequal gene content and the presence of gene paralogs. The distance problem is to determine the minimum number of operations required to transform one chromosome structure into another and the corresponding transformation itself including the identification of paralogs in two structures. We use the DCJ model which is one of the most studied combinatorial rearrangement models. Double-, sesqui-, and single-operations as well as deletion and insertion of a chromosome region are considered in the model; the single ones comprise cut and join. In the reconstruction problem, a phylogenetic tree with chromosome structures in the leaves is given. It is necessary to assign the structures to inner nodes of the tree to minimize the sum of distances between terminal structures of each edge and to identify the mutual paralogs in a fairly large set of structures. A linear algorithm is known for the distance problem without paralogs, while the presence of paralogs makes it NP-hard. If paralogs are allowed but the insertion and deletion operations are missing (and special constraints are imposed), the reduction of the distance problem to integer linear programming is known. Apparently, the reconstruction problem is NP-hard even in the absence of paralogs. The problem of contigs is to find the optimal arrangements for each given set of contigs, which also includes the mutual identification of paralogs. We proved that these
Song, Hyun-Seob; Goldberg, Noam; Mahajan, Ashutosh; Ramkrishna, Doraiswami
2017-08-01
Elementary (flux) modes (EMs) have served as a valuable tool for investigating structural and functional properties of metabolic networks. Identification of the full set of EMs in genome-scale networks remains challenging due to combinatorial explosion of EMs in complex networks. It is often, however, that only a small subset of relevant EMs needs to be known, for which optimization-based sequential computation is a useful alternative. Most of the currently available methods along this line are based on the iterative use of mixed integer linear programming (MILP), the effectiveness of which significantly deteriorates as the number of iterations builds up. To alleviate the computational burden associated with the MILP implementation, we here present a novel optimization algorithm termed alternate integer linear programming (AILP). Our algorithm was designed to iteratively solve a pair of integer programming (IP) and linear programming (LP) to compute EMs in a sequential manner. In each step, the IP identifies a minimal subset of reactions, the deletion of which disables all previously identified EMs. Thus, a subsequent LP solution subject to this reaction deletion constraint becomes a distinct EM. In cases where no feasible LP solution is available, IP-derived reaction deletion sets represent minimal cut sets (MCSs). Despite the additional computation of MCSs, AILP achieved significant time reduction in computing EMs by orders of magnitude. The proposed AILP algorithm not only offers a computational advantage in the EM analysis of genome-scale networks, but also improves the understanding of the linkage between EMs and MCSs. The software is implemented in Matlab, and is provided as supplementary information . hyunseob.song@pnnl.gov. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. Published by Oxford University Press 2017. This work is written by US Government employees and are in the public domain in the US.
Computer Corner: Spreadsheets, Power Series, Generating Functions, and Integers.
Snow, Donald R.
1989-01-01
Implements a table algorithm on a spreadsheet program and obtains functions for several number sequences such as the Fibonacci and Catalan numbers. Considers other applications of the table algorithm to integers represented in various number bases. (YP)
RSM 1.0 - A RESUPPLY SCHEDULER USING INTEGER OPTIMIZATION
Viterna, L. A.
1994-01-01
RSM, Resupply Scheduling Modeler, is a fully menu-driven program that uses integer programming techniques to determine an optimum schedule for replacing components on or before the end of a fixed replacement period. Although written to analyze the electrical power system on the Space Station Freedom, RSM is quite general and can be used to model the resupply of almost any system subject to user-defined resource constraints. RSM is based on a specific form of the general linear programming problem in which all variables in the objective function and all variables in the constraints are integers. While more computationally intensive, integer programming was required for accuracy when modeling systems with small quantities of components. Input values for component life cane be real numbers, RSM converts them to integers by dividing the lifetime by the period duration, then reducing the result to the next lowest integer. For each component, there is a set of constraints that insure that it is replaced before its lifetime expires. RSM includes user-defined constraints such as transportation mass and volume limits, as well as component life, available repair crew time and assembly sequences. A weighting factor allows the program to minimize factors such as cost. The program then performs an iterative analysis, which is displayed during the processing. A message gives the first period in which resources are being exceeded on each iteration. If the scheduling problem is unfeasible, the final message will also indicate the first period in which resources were exceeded. RSM is written in APL2 for IBM PC series computers and compatibles. A stand-alone executable version of RSM is provided; however, this is a "packed" version of RSM which can only utilize the memory within the 640K DOS limit. This executable requires at least 640K of memory and DOS 3.1 or higher. Source code for an APL2/PC workspace version is also provided. This version of RSM can make full use of any
Canepa, Edward S.
2013-01-01
Traffic sensing systems rely more and more on user generated (insecure) data, which can pose a security risk whenever the data is used for traffic flow control. In this article, we propose a new formulation for detecting malicious data injection in traffic flow monitoring systems by using the underlying traffic flow model. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill-Whitham- Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for some decision variable. We use this fact to pose the problem of detecting spoofing cyber-attacks in probe-based traffic flow information systems as mixed integer linear feasibility problem. The resulting framework can be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or to evaluate the worst-case effects of an attack offline. A numerical implementation is performed on a cyber-attack scenario involving experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment and the Mobile Millennium system currently operational in Northern California. © 2013 IEEE.
Canepa, Edward S.
2013-09-01
Traffic sensing systems rely more and more on user generated (insecure) data, which can pose a security risk whenever the data is used for traffic flow control. In this article, we propose a new formulation for detecting malicious data injection in traffic flow monitoring systems by using the underlying traffic flow model. The state of traffic is modeled by the Lighthill- Whitham-Richards traffic flow model, which is a first order scalar conservation law with concave flux function. Given a set of traffic flow data generated by multiple sensors of different types, we show that the constraints resulting from this partial differential equation are mixed integer linear inequalities for a specific decision variable. We use this fact to pose the problem of detecting spoofing cyber attacks in probe-based traffic flow information systems as mixed integer linear feasibility problem. The resulting framework can be used to detect spoofing attacks in real time, or to evaluate the worst-case effects of an attack offliine. A numerical implementation is performed on a cyber attack scenario involving experimental data from the Mobile Century experiment and the Mobile Millennium system currently operational in Northern California. © American Institute of Mathematical Sciences.
An integer programming model and benchmark suite for liner shipping network design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Løfstedt, Berit; Alvarez, Jose Fernando; Plum, Christian Edinger Munk
effective and energy efficient liner shipping networks using operations research is huge and neglected. The implementation of logistic planning tools based upon operations research has enhanced performance of both airlines, railways and general transportation companies, but within the field of liner......Maritime transportation is accountable for 2.7% of the worlds CO2 emissions and the liner shipping industry is committed to a slow steaming policy to provide low cost and environmentally conscious global transport of goods without compromising the level of service. The potential for making cost...... along with a rich integer programming model based on the services, that constitute the fixed schedule of a liner shipping company. The model may be relaxed as well as decomposed. The design of a benchmark suite of data instances to reflect the business structure of a global liner shipping network...
Cheng, Guanhui; Huang, Guohe; Dong, Cong; Xu, Ye; Chen, Xiujuan; Chen, Jiapei
2017-03-01
Due to the existence of complexities of heterogeneities, hierarchy, discreteness, and interactions in municipal solid waste management (MSWM) systems such as Beijing, China, a series of socio-economic and eco-environmental problems may emerge or worsen and result in irredeemable damages in the following decades. Meanwhile, existing studies, especially ones focusing on MSWM in Beijing, could hardly reflect these complexities in system simulations and provide reliable decision support for management practices. Thus, a framework of distributed mixed-integer fuzzy hierarchical programming (DMIFHP) is developed in this study for MSWM under these complexities. Beijing is selected as a representative case. The Beijing MSWM system is comprehensively analyzed in many aspects such as socio-economic conditions, natural conditions, spatial heterogeneities, treatment facilities, and system complexities, building a solid foundation for system simulation and optimization. Correspondingly, the MSWM system in Beijing is discretized as 235 grids to reflect spatial heterogeneity. A DMIFHP model which is a nonlinear programming problem is constructed to parameterize the Beijing MSWM system. To enable scientific solving of it, a solution algorithm is proposed based on coupling of fuzzy programming and mixed-integer linear programming. Innovations and advantages of the DMIFHP framework are discussed. The optimal MSWM schemes and mechanism revelations will be discussed in another companion paper due to length limitation.
Prediction of pipeline corrosion rate based on grey Markov models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yonghong; Zhang Dafa; Peng Guichu; Wang Yuemin
2009-01-01
Based on the model that combined by grey model and Markov model, the prediction of corrosion rate of nuclear power pipeline was studied. Works were done to improve the grey model, and the optimization unbiased grey model was obtained. This new model was used to predict the tendency of corrosion rate, and the Markov model was used to predict the residual errors. In order to improve the prediction precision, rolling operation method was used in these prediction processes. The results indicate that the improvement to the grey model is effective and the prediction precision of the new model combined by the optimization unbiased grey model and Markov model is better, and the use of rolling operation method may improve the prediction precision further. (authors)
Construction of Fixed Rate Non-Binary WOM Codes Based on Integer Programming
Fujino, Yoju; Wadayama, Tadashi
In this paper, we propose a construction of non-binary WOM (Write-Once-Memory) codes for WOM storages such as flash memories. The WOM codes discussed in this paper are fixed rate WOM codes where messages in a fixed alphabet of size $M$ can be sequentially written in the WOM storage at least $t^*$-times. In this paper, a WOM storage is modeled by a state transition graph. The proposed construction has the following two features. First, it includes a systematic method to determine the encoding regions in the state transition graph. Second, the proposed construction includes a labeling method for states by using integer programming. Several novel WOM codes for $q$ level flash memories with 2 cells are constructed by the proposed construction. They achieve the worst numbers of writes $t^*$ that meet the known upper bound in many cases. In addition, we constructed fixed rate non-binary WOM codes with the capability to reduce ICI (inter cell interference) of flash cells. One of the advantages of the proposed construction is its flexibility. It can be applied to various storage devices, to various dimensions (i.e, number of cells), and various kind of additional constraints.
Improved Sorting-Based Procedure for Integer Programming
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dantchev, Stefan
2002-01-01
Recently, Cornuéjols and Dawande have considered a special class of 0-1 programs that turns out to be hard for existing IP solvers. One of them is a sorting-based algorithm, based on an idea of Wolsey. In this paper, we show how to improve both the running time and the space requirements...... of this algorithm. The drastic reduction of space needed allows us to solve much larger instances than was possible before using this technique....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Zhaoxi; Wu, Qiuwei; Oren, Shmuel S.
2017-01-01
This paper presents a distribution locational marginal pricing (DLMP) method through chance constrained mixed-integer programming designed to alleviate the possible congestion in the future distribution network with high penetration of electric vehicles (EVs). In order to represent the stochastic...
Developing optimal nurses work schedule using integer programming
Shahidin, Ainon Mardhiyah; Said, Mohd Syazwan Md; Said, Noor Hizwan Mohamad; Sazali, Noor Izatie Amaliena
2017-08-01
Time management is the art of arranging, organizing and scheduling one's time for the purpose of generating more effective work and productivity. Scheduling is the process of deciding how to commit resources between varieties of possible tasks. Thus, it is crucial for every organization to have a good work schedule for their staffs. The job of Ward nurses at hospitals runs for 24 hours every day. Therefore, nurses will be working using shift scheduling. This study is aimed to solve the nurse scheduling problem at an emergency ward of a private hospital. A 7-day work schedule for 7 consecutive weeks satisfying all the constraints set by the hospital will be developed using Integer Programming. The work schedule for the nurses obtained gives an optimal solution where all the constraints are being satisfied successfully.
Mixed integer linear programming for maximum-parsimony phylogeny inference.
Sridhar, Srinath; Lam, Fumei; Blelloch, Guy E; Ravi, R; Schwartz, Russell
2008-01-01
Reconstruction of phylogenetic trees is a fundamental problem in computational biology. While excellent heuristic methods are available for many variants of this problem, new advances in phylogeny inference will be required if we are to be able to continue to make effective use of the rapidly growing stores of variation data now being gathered. In this paper, we present two integer linear programming (ILP) formulations to find the most parsimonious phylogenetic tree from a set of binary variation data. One method uses a flow-based formulation that can produce exponential numbers of variables and constraints in the worst case. The method has, however, proven extremely efficient in practice on datasets that are well beyond the reach of the available provably efficient methods, solving several large mtDNA and Y-chromosome instances within a few seconds and giving provably optimal results in times competitive with fast heuristics than cannot guarantee optimality. An alternative formulation establishes that the problem can be solved with a polynomial-sized ILP. We further present a web server developed based on the exponential-sized ILP that performs fast maximum parsimony inferences and serves as a front end to a database of precomputed phylogenies spanning the human genome.
Learning Bayesian network structure: towards the essential graph by integer linear programming tools
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Studený, Milan; Haws, D.
2014-01-01
Roč. 55, č. 4 (2014), s. 1043-1071 ISSN 0888-613X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-20012S Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : learning Bayesian network structure * integer linear programming * characteristic imset * essential graph Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.451, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/MTR/studeny-0427002.pdf
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khrennikov, Andrei; Klein, Moshe; Mor, Tal
2010-01-01
In number theory, a partition of a positive integer n is a way of writing n as a sum of positive integers. The number of partitions of n is given by the partition function p(n). Inspired by quantum information processing, we extend the concept of partitions in number theory as follows: for an integer n, we treat each partition as a basis state of a quantum system representing that number n, so that the Hilbert-space that corresponds to that integer n is of dimension p(n); the 'classical integer' n can thus be generalized into a (pure) quantum state ||ψ(n) > which is a superposition of the partitions of n, in the same way that a quantum bit (qubit) is a generalization of a classical bit. More generally, ρ(n) is a density matrix in that same Hilbert-space (a probability distribution over pure states). Inspired by the notion of quantum numbers in quantum theory (such as in Bohr's model of the atom), we then try to go beyond the partitions, by defining (via recursion) the notion of 'sub-partitions' in number theory. Combining the two notions mentioned above, sub-partitions and quantum integers, we finally provide an alternative definition of the quantum integers [the pure-state |ψ'(n)> and the mixed-state ρ'(n),] this time using the sub-partitions as the basis states instead of the partitions, for describing the quantum number that corresponds to the integer n.
Shape-based interpolation of multidimensional grey-level images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grevera, G.J.; Udupa, J.K.
1996-01-01
Shape-based interpolation as applied to binary images causes the interpolation process to be influenced by the shape of the object. It accomplishes this by first applying a distance transform to the data. This results in the creation of a grey-level data set in which the value at each point represents the minimum distance from that point to the surface of the object. (By convention, points inside the object are assigned positive values; points outside are assigned negative values.) This distance transformed data set is then interpolated using linear or higher-order interpolation and is then thresholded at a distance value of zero to produce the interpolated binary data set. In this paper, the authors describe a new method that extends shape-based interpolation to grey-level input data sets. This generalization consists of first lifting the n-dimensional (n-D) image data to represent it as a surface, or equivalently as a binary image, in an (n + 1)-dimensional [(n + 1)-D] space. The binary shape-based method is then applied to this image to create an (n + 1)-D binary interpolated image. Finally, this image is collapsed (inverse of lifting) to create the n-D interpolated grey-level data set. The authors have conducted several evaluation studies involving patient computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) data as well as mathematical phantoms. They all indicate that the new method produces more accurate results than commonly used grey-level linear interpolation methods, although at the cost of increased computation
Christensen, Helen; Griffiths, Kathleen M; Gulliver, Amelia
2008-06-16
To identify reports in the "grey literature" of programs conducted in Australian primary care to improve depression and anxiety outcomes, and to examine these reports for evidence of effectiveness. A systematic search was undertaken for grey literature reports using primary health care research databases, community and professional websites, clearinghouse sources, government reports, and reports from the Australian General Practice Network. Reports were included if they related to programs targeting depression or anxiety, contained qualitative or quantitative effectiveness data, and were published during 1995-2006. In total, 642 reports were identified, of which 43 met inclusion criteria. Of the 43 programs described, 30 were delivered in general practice, five in the community or residential care, three in schools, and five were Internet or computer based. Nine programs were also reported in the formal "black" literature, but most, including the Better Outcomes in Mental Health Care initiative, were not. Limited data on effectiveness or patient outcomes were available in the grey literature. There is currently no single service that identifies, describes and catalogues the range and effectiveness of mental health initiatives in Australia. There may be a role for a mental health information "clearinghouse" to facilitate dissemination and education, and to promote collaboration among researchers, practitioners, consumers and policymakers. Innovative schemes to disseminate evidence-based models and to encourage the collection of data on patient outcomes in such programs are needed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Renata Melo e Silva de Oliveira
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Scheduling is a key factor for operations management as well as for business success. From industrial Job-shop Scheduling problems (JSSP, many optimization challenges have emerged since de 1960s when improvements have been continuously required such as bottlenecks allocation, lead-time reductions and reducing response time to requests. With this in perspective, this work aims to discuss 3 different optimization models for minimizing Makespan. Those 3 models were applied on 17 classical problems of examples JSSP and produced different outputs. The first model resorts on Mixed and Integer Programming (MIP and it resulted on optimizing 60% of the studied problems. The other models were based on Constraint Programming (CP and approached the problem in two different ways: a model CP1 is a standard IBM algorithm whereof restrictions have an interval structure that fail to solve 53% of the proposed instances, b Model CP-2 approaches the problem with disjunctive constraints and optimized 88% of the instances. In this work, each model is individually analyzed and then compared considering: i Optimization success performance, ii Computational processing time, iii Greatest Resource Utilization and, iv Minimum Work-in-process Inventory. Results demonstrated that CP-2 presented best results on criteria i and ii, but MIP was superior on criteria iii and iv and those findings are discussed at the final section of this work.
Integer Linear Programming for Constrained Multi-Aspect Committee Review Assignment
Karimzadehgan, Maryam; Zhai, ChengXiang
2011-01-01
Automatic review assignment can significantly improve the productivity of many people such as conference organizers, journal editors and grant administrators. A general setup of the review assignment problem involves assigning a set of reviewers on a committee to a set of documents to be reviewed under the constraint of review quota so that the reviewers assigned to a document can collectively cover multiple topic aspects of the document. No previous work has addressed such a setup of committee review assignments while also considering matching multiple aspects of topics and expertise. In this paper, we tackle the problem of committee review assignment with multi-aspect expertise matching by casting it as an integer linear programming problem. The proposed algorithm can naturally accommodate any probabilistic or deterministic method for modeling multiple aspects to automate committee review assignments. Evaluation using a multi-aspect review assignment test set constructed using ACM SIGIR publications shows that the proposed algorithm is effective and efficient for committee review assignments based on multi-aspect expertise matching. PMID:22711970
Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahoo, Satiprasad; Dhar, Anirban; Kar, Amlanjyoti
2016-01-01
Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.
Environmental vulnerability assessment using Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process based model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahoo, Satiprasad [School of Water Resources, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Dhar, Anirban, E-mail: anirban.dhar@gmail.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur (India); Kar, Amlanjyoti [Central Ground Water Board, Bhujal Bhawan, Faridabad, Haryana (India)
2016-01-15
Environmental management of an area describes a policy for its systematic and sustainable environmental protection. In the present study, regional environmental vulnerability assessment in Hirakud command area of Odisha, India is envisaged based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process method (Grey–AHP) using integrated remote sensing (RS) and geographic information system (GIS) techniques. Grey–AHP combines the advantages of classical analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and grey clustering method for accurate estimation of weight coefficients. It is a new method for environmental vulnerability assessment. Environmental vulnerability index (EVI) uses natural, environmental and human impact related factors, e.g., soil, geology, elevation, slope, rainfall, temperature, wind speed, normalized difference vegetation index, drainage density, crop intensity, agricultural DRASTIC value, population density and road density. EVI map has been classified into four environmental vulnerability zones (EVZs) namely: ‘low’, ‘moderate’ ‘high’, and ‘extreme’ encompassing 17.87%, 44.44%, 27.81% and 9.88% of the study area, respectively. EVI map indicates that the northern part of the study area is more vulnerable from an environmental point of view. EVI map shows close correlation with elevation. Effectiveness of the zone classification is evaluated by using grey clustering method. General effectiveness is in between “better” and “common classes”. This analysis demonstrates the potential applicability of the methodology. - Highlights: • Environmental vulnerability zone identification based on Grey Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) • The effectiveness evaluation by means of a grey clustering method with support from AHP • Use of grey approach eliminates the excessive dependency on the experience of experts.
Donoghue, John R.
2015-01-01
At the heart of van der Linden's approach to automated test assembly (ATA) is a linear programming/integer programming (LP/IP) problem. A variety of IP solvers are available, ranging in cost from free to hundreds of thousands of dollars. In this paper, I compare several approaches to solving the underlying IP problem. These approaches range from…
Penempatan Optimal Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU dengan Integer Programming
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunan Helmy Amrulloh
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU merupakan peralatan yang mampu memberikan pengukuran fasor tegangan dan arus secara real-time. PMU dapat digunakan untuk monitoring, proteksi dan kontrol pada sistem tenaga listrik. Tugas akhir ini membahas penempatan PMU secara optimal berdasarkan topologi jaringan sehingga sistem tenaga listrik dapat diobservasi. Penempatan optimal PMU dirumuskan sebagai masalah Binary Integer Programming (BIP yang akan memberikan variabel dengan pilihan nilai (0,1 yang menunjukkan tempat yang harus dipasang PMU. Dalam tugas akhir ini, BIP diterapkan untuk menyelesaikan masalah penempatan PMU secara optimal pada sistem tenaga listrik Jawa-Bali 500 KV yang selanjutnya diterapkan dengan penambahan konsep incomplete observability. Hasil simulasi menunjukkan bahwa penerapan BIP pada sistem dengan incomplete observability memberikan jumlah PMU yang lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan sistem tanpa konsep incomplete observability.
An Integer Programming Formulation of the Minimum Common String Partition Problem.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S M Ferdous
Full Text Available We consider the problem of finding a minimum common string partition (MCSP of two strings, which is an NP-hard problem. The MCSP problem is closely related to genome comparison and rearrangement, an important field in Computational Biology. In this paper, we map the MCSP problem into a graph applying a prior technique and using this graph, we develop an Integer Linear Programming (ILP formulation for the problem. We implement the ILP formulation and compare the results with the state-of-the-art algorithms from the literature. The experimental results are found to be promising.
Mixed Integer Linear Programming model for Crude Palm Oil Supply Chain Planning
Sembiring, Pasukat; Mawengkang, Herman; Sadyadharma, Hendaru; Bu'ulolo, F.; Fajriana
2018-01-01
The production process of crude palm oil (CPO) can be defined as the milling process of raw materials, called fresh fruit bunch (FFB) into end products palm oil. The process usually through a series of steps producing and consuming intermediate products. The CPO milling industry considered in this paper does not have oil palm plantation, therefore the FFB are supplied by several public oil palm plantations. Due to the limited availability of FFB, then it is necessary to choose from which plantations would be appropriate. This paper proposes a mixed integer linear programming model the supply chain integrated problem, which include waste processing. The mathematical programming model is solved using neighborhood search approach.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Mohammad Arabzad
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In recent years, numerous methods have been proposed to deal with supplier evaluation and selection problem, but a point which has been usually neglected by researchers is the role of purchasing items. The aim of this paper is to propose an integrated approach to select suppliers and allocate orders on the basis of the nature of the purchasing items which means that this issue plays an important role in supplier selection and order allocation. Therefore, items are first categorized according to the Kraljic’s model by the use of FMEA technique. Then, suppliers are categorized and evaluated in four phases with respect to different types of purchasing items (Strategic, Bottleneck, Leverage and Routine. Finally, an integer linear programming is utilized to allocate purchasing orders to suppliers. Furthermore, an empirical example is conducted to illustrate the stage of proposed approach. Results imply that ranking of suppliers and allocation of purchasing items based on the nature of purchasing items will create more capabilities in managing purchasing items and suppliers .
Integrative improvement method and mixed-integer programming in system planning
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sadegheih, A.
2002-01-01
In this paper, system planning network is formulated for mixed-integer programming and a Ga. The cost function of this problem consists of the capital investment cost in discrete form, the cost of transmission losses and the power generation costs. The Dc load flow equations for the network are embedded in the constraints of the mathematical model to avoid sub-optimal solutions that can arise if the enforcement of such constraints is done in an indirect way. The solution of the model gives the best line additions. and also provides information regarding the optimal generation at each generation point. This method of solutions is demonstrated on the expansion of a 5 bus -bar system to 6 bus-bars
An Integer Programming Approach to Solving Tantrix on Fixed Boards
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yushi Uno
2012-03-01
Full Text Available Tantrix (Tantrix R ⃝ is a registered trademark of Colour of Strategy Ltd. in New Zealand, and of TANTRIX JAPAN in Japan, respectively, under the license of M. McManaway, the inventor. is a puzzle to make a loop by connecting lines drawn on hexagonal tiles, and the objective of this research is to solve it by a computer. For this purpose, we first give a problem setting of solving Tantrix as making a loop on a given fixed board. We then formulate it as an integer program by describing the rules of Tantrix as its constraints, and solve it by a mathematical programming solver to have a solution. As a result, we establish a formulation that can solve Tantrix of moderate size, and even when the solutions are invalid only by elementary constraints, we achieved it by introducing additional constraints and re-solve it. By this approach we succeeded to solve Tantrix of size up to 60.
On the Delone property of (−β-integers
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Wolfgang Steiner
2011-08-01
Full Text Available The (−β-integers are natural generalisations of the β-integers, and thus of the integers, for negative real bases. They can be described by infinite words which are fixed points of anti-morphisms. We show that they are not necessarily uniformly discrete and relatively dense in the real numbers.
Chenlu Miao; Gang Du; Yi Xia; Danping Wang
2016-01-01
Many leader-follower relationships exist in product family design engineering problems. We use bilevel programming (BLP) to reflect the leader-follower relationship and describe such problems. Product family design problems have unique characteristics; thus, mixed integer nonlinear BLP (MINLBLP), which has both continuous and discrete variables and multiple independent lower-level problems, is widely used in product family optimization. However, BLP is difficult in theory and is an NP-hard pr...
Optimal Airport Surface Traffic Planning Using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming
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P. C. Roling
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We describe an ongoing research effort pertaining to the development of a surface traffic automation system that will help controllers to better coordinate surface traffic movements related to arrival and departure traffic. More specifically, we describe the concept for a taxi-planning support tool that aims to optimize the routing and scheduling of airport surface traffic in such a way as to deconflict the taxi plans while optimizing delay, total taxi-time, or some other airport efficiency metric. Certain input parameters related to resource demand, such as the expected landing times and the expected pushback times, are rather difficult to predict accurately. Due to uncertainty in the input data driving the taxi-planning process, the taxi-planning tool is designed such that it produces solutions that are robust to uncertainty. The taxi-planning concept presented herein, which is based on mixed-integer linear programming, is designed such that it is able to adapt to perturbations in these input conditions, as well as to account for failure in the actual execution of surface trajectories. The capabilities of the tool are illustrated in a simple hypothetical airport.
Chang, Weng-Long
2012-03-01
Assume that n is a positive integer. If there is an integer such that M (2) ≡ C (mod n), i.e., the congruence has a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic congruence (mod n). If the congruence does not have a solution, then C is said to be a quadratic noncongruence (mod n). The task of solving the problem is central to many important applications, the most obvious being cryptography. In this article, we describe a DNA-based algorithm for solving quadratic congruence and factoring integers. In additional to this novel contribution, we also show the utility of our encoding scheme, and of the algorithm's submodules. We demonstrate how a variety of arithmetic, shifted and comparative operations, namely bitwise and full addition, subtraction, left shifter and comparison perhaps are performed using strands of DNA.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)
1994-11-15
The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.
Uncertainty representation of grey numbers and grey sets.
Yang, Yingjie; Liu, Sifeng; John, Robert
2014-09-01
In the literature, there is a presumption that a grey set and an interval-valued fuzzy set are equivalent. This presumption ignores the existence of discrete components in a grey number. In this paper, new measurements of uncertainties of grey numbers and grey sets, consisting of both absolute and relative uncertainties, are defined to give a comprehensive representation of uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. Some simple examples are provided to illustrate that the proposed uncertainty measurement can give an effective representation of both absolute and relative uncertainties in a grey number and a grey set. The relationships between grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets are also analyzed from the point of view of the proposed uncertainty representation. The analysis demonstrates that grey sets and interval-valued fuzzy sets provide different but overlapping models for uncertainty representation in sets.
Advances in mixed-integer programming methods for chemical production scheduling.
Velez, Sara; Maravelias, Christos T
2014-01-01
The goal of this paper is to critically review advances in the area of chemical production scheduling over the past three decades and then present two recently proposed solution methods that have led to dramatic computational enhancements. First, we present a general framework and problem classification and discuss modeling and solution methods with an emphasis on mixed-integer programming (MIP) techniques. Second, we present two solution methods: (a) a constraint propagation algorithm that allows us to compute parameters that are then used to tighten MIP scheduling models and (b) a reformulation that introduces new variables, thus leading to effective branching. We also present computational results and an example illustrating how these methods are implemented, as well as the resulting enhancements. We close with a discussion of open research challenges and future research directions.
A Mixed Integer Linear Programming Approach to Electrical Stimulation Optimization Problems.
Abouelseoud, Gehan; Abouelseoud, Yasmine; Shoukry, Amin; Ismail, Nour; Mekky, Jaidaa
2018-02-01
Electrical stimulation optimization is a challenging problem. Even when a single region is targeted for excitation, the problem remains a constrained multi-objective optimization problem. The constrained nature of the problem results from safety concerns while its multi-objectives originate from the requirement that non-targeted regions should remain unaffected. In this paper, we propose a mixed integer linear programming formulation that can successfully address the challenges facing this problem. Moreover, the proposed framework can conclusively check the feasibility of the stimulation goals. This helps researchers to avoid wasting time trying to achieve goals that are impossible under a chosen stimulation setup. The superiority of the proposed framework over alternative methods is demonstrated through simulation examples.
STUDY OF SOLUTION REPRESENTATION LANGUAGE INFLUENCE ON EFFICIENCY OF INTEGER SEQUENCES PREDICTION
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A. S. Potapov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Methods based on genetic programming for the problem solution of integer sequences extrapolation are the subjects for study in the paper. In order to check the hypothesis about the influence of language expression of program representation on the prediction effectiveness, the genetic programming method based on several limited languages for recurrent sequences has been developed. On the single sequence sample the implemented method with the use of more complete language has shown results, significantly better than the results of one of the current methods represented in literature based on artificial neural networks. Analysis of experimental comparison results for the realized method with the usage of different languages has shown that language extension increases the difficulty of consistent patterns search in languages, available for prediction in a simpler language though it makes new sequence classes accessible for prediction. This effect can be reduced but not eliminated completely at language extension by the constructions, which make solutions more compact. Carried out researches have drawn to the conclusion that alone the choice of an adequate language for solution representation is not enough for the full problem solution of integer sequences prediction (and, all the more, universal prediction problem. However, practically applied methods can be received by the usage of genetic programming.
Wang, Gang; Wang, Yalin
2017-02-15
In this paper, we propose a heat kernel based regional shape descriptor that may be capable of better exploiting volumetric morphological information than other available methods, thereby improving statistical power on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) analysis. The mechanism of our analysis is driven by the graph spectrum and the heat kernel theory, to capture the volumetric geometry information in the constructed tetrahedral meshes. In order to capture profound brain grey matter shape changes, we first use the volumetric Laplace-Beltrami operator to determine the point pair correspondence between white-grey matter and CSF-grey matter boundary surfaces by computing the streamlines in a tetrahedral mesh. Secondly, we propose multi-scale grey matter morphology signatures to describe the transition probability by random walk between the point pairs, which reflects the inherent geometric characteristics. Thirdly, a point distribution model is applied to reduce the dimensionality of the grey matter morphology signatures and generate the internal structure features. With the sparse linear discriminant analysis, we select a concise morphology feature set with improved classification accuracies. In our experiments, the proposed work outperformed the cortical thickness features computed by FreeSurfer software in the classification of Alzheimer's disease and its prodromal stage, i.e., mild cognitive impairment, on publicly available data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. The multi-scale and physics based volumetric structure feature may bring stronger statistical power than some traditional methods for MRI-based grey matter morphology analysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Grey situation group decision-making method based on prospect theory.
Zhang, Na; Fang, Zhigeng; Liu, Xiaqing
2014-01-01
This paper puts forward a grey situation group decision-making method on the basis of prospect theory, in view of the grey situation group decision-making problems that decisions are often made by multiple decision experts and those experts have risk preferences. The method takes the positive and negative ideal situation distance as reference points, defines positive and negative prospect value function, and introduces decision experts' risk preference into grey situation decision-making to make the final decision be more in line with decision experts' psychological behavior. Based on TOPSIS method, this paper determines the weight of each decision expert, sets up comprehensive prospect value matrix for decision experts' evaluation, and finally determines the optimal situation. At last, this paper verifies the effectiveness and feasibility of the method by means of a specific example.
Software sensors based on the grey-box modelling approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carstensen, J.; Harremoës, P.; Strube, Rune
1996-01-01
In recent years the grey-box modelling approach has been applied to wastewater transportation and treatment Grey-box models are characterized by the combination of deterministic and stochastic terms to form a model where all the parameters are statistically identifiable from the on......-box model for the specific dynamics is identified. Similarly, an on-line software sensor for detecting the occurrence of backwater phenomena can be developed by comparing the dynamics of a flow measurement with a nearby level measurement. For treatment plants it is found that grey-box models applied to on......-line measurements. With respect to the development of software sensors, the grey-box models possess two important features. Firstly, the on-line measurements can be filtered according to the grey-box model in order to remove noise deriving from the measuring equipment and controlling devices. Secondly, the grey...
Grey literature in meta-analyses.
Conn, Vicki S; Valentine, Jeffrey C; Cooper, Harris M; Rantz, Marilyn J
2003-01-01
In meta-analysis, researchers combine the results of individual studies to arrive at cumulative conclusions. Meta-analysts sometimes include "grey literature" in their evidential base, which includes unpublished studies and studies published outside widely available journals. Because grey literature is a source of data that might not employ peer review, critics have questioned the validity of its data and the results of meta-analyses that include it. To examine evidence regarding whether grey literature should be included in meta-analyses and strategies to manage grey literature in quantitative synthesis. This article reviews evidence on whether the results of studies published in peer-reviewed journals are representative of results from broader samplings of research on a topic as a rationale for inclusion of grey literature. Strategies to enhance access to grey literature are addressed. The most consistent and robust difference between published and grey literature is that published research is more likely to contain results that are statistically significant. Effect size estimates of published research are about one-third larger than those of unpublished studies. Unfunded and small sample studies are less likely to be published. Yet, importantly, methodological rigor does not differ between published and grey literature. Meta-analyses that exclude grey literature likely (a) over-represent studies with statistically significant findings, (b) inflate effect size estimates, and (c) provide less precise effect size estimates than meta-analyses including grey literature. Meta-analyses should include grey literature to fully reflect the existing evidential base and should assess the impact of methodological variations through moderator analysis.
Analysis misconception of integers in microteaching activities
Setyawati, R. D.; Indiati, I.
2018-05-01
This study view to analyse student misconceptions on integers in microteaching activities. This research used qualitative research design. An integers test contained questions from eight main areas of integers. The Integers material test includes (a) converting the image into fractions, (b) examples of positive numbers including rational numbers, (c) operations in fractions, (d) sorting fractions from the largest to the smallest, and vice versa; e) equate denominator, (f) concept of ratio mark, (g) definition of fraction, and (h) difference between fractions and parts. The results indicated an integers concepts: (1) the students have not been able to define concepts well based on the classification of facts in organized part; (2) The correlational concept: students have not been able to combine interrelated events in the form of general principles; and (3) theoretical concepts: students have not been able to use concepts that facilitate in learning the facts or events in an organized system.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.B. Chopade
2014-05-01
Full Text Available This paper presents image super-resolution scheme based on sub-pixel image registration by the design of a specific class of dyadic-integer-coefficient based wavelet filters derived from the construction of a half-band polynomial. First, the integer-coefficient based half-band polynomial is designed by the splitting approach. Next, this designed half-band polynomial is factorized and assigned specific number of vanishing moments and roots to obtain the dyadic-integer coefficients low-pass analysis and synthesis filters. The possibility of these dyadic-integer coefficients based wavelet filters is explored in the field of image super-resolution using sub-pixel image registration. The two-resolution frames are registered at a specific shift from one another to restore the resolution lost by CCD array of camera. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT obtained from the designed coefficients is applied on these two low-resolution images to obtain the high resolution image. The developed approach is validated by comparing the quality metrics with existing filter banks.
A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming approach to wind farm layout and inter-array cable routing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fischetti, Martina; Leth, John-Josef; Borchersen, Anders Bech
2015-01-01
A Mixed-Integer Linear Programming (MILP) approach is proposed to optimize the turbine allocation and inter-array offshore cable routing. The two problems are considered with a two steps strategy, solving the layout problem first and then the cable problem. We give an introduction to both problems...... and present the MILP models we developed to solve them. To deal with interference in the onshore cases, we propose an adaptation of the standard Jensen’s model, suitable for 3D cases. A simple Stochastic Programming variant of our model allows us to consider different wind scenarios in the optimization...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yao, Albert W.L.; Chi, S.C.
2004-01-01
In order to use electricity efficiently, a demand control management system is one of the effective ways to reduce energy consumption and electric bills. An electricity demand control system is used as a means to monitor and manage the usage of electricity effectively. Moreover, it is a useful tool for avoiding penalties beyond the contracted demand value of electricity with the electric power company. In this project, we developed a Taguchi-Grey based predictor to forecast the demand value of electricity on line. In a Grey prediction, the parameter settings are highly relevant to the accuracy of forecasting. A Taguchi method was employed to optimize the parameter settings for the Grey based electricity demand value predictor. Our experimental results show that the optimal parameter settings of the Grey prediction are α=0.4, five point modeling and three minute sampling time of the data acquisition system. The improved Taguchi-Grey based electricity demand predictor in conjunction with the PC based electricity demand control system is a cost effective and efficient means to manage the usage of electricity
van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André
2015-05-01
Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia.
Wihartiko, F. D.; Wijayanti, H.; Virgantari, F.
2018-03-01
Genetic Algorithm (GA) is a common algorithm used to solve optimization problems with artificial intelligence approach. Similarly, the Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm. Both algorithms have different advantages and disadvantages when applied to the case of optimization of the Model Integer Programming for Bus Timetabling Problem (MIPBTP), where in the case of MIPBTP will be found the optimal number of trips confronted with various constraints. The comparison results show that the PSO algorithm is superior in terms of complexity, accuracy, iteration and program simplicity in finding the optimal solution.
Searching for optimal integer solutions to set partitioning problems using column generation
Bredström, David; Jörnsten, Kurt; Rönnqvist, Mikael
2007-01-01
We describe a new approach to produce integer feasible columns to a set partitioning problem directly in solving the linear programming (LP) relaxation using column generation. Traditionally, column generation is aimed to solve the LP relaxation as quick as possible without any concern of the integer properties of the columns formed. In our approach we aim to generate the columns forming the optimal integer solution while simultaneously solving the LP relaxation. By this we can re...
Edit distance for marked point processes revisited: An implementation by binary integer programming
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirata, Yoshito; Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan)
2015-12-15
We implement the edit distance for marked point processes [Suzuki et al., Int. J. Bifurcation Chaos 20, 3699–3708 (2010)] as a binary integer program. Compared with the previous implementation using minimum cost perfect matching, the proposed implementation has two advantages: first, by using the proposed implementation, we can apply a wide variety of software and hardware, even spin glasses and coherent ising machines, to calculate the edit distance for marked point processes; second, the proposed implementation runs faster than the previous implementation when the difference between the numbers of events in two time windows for a marked point process is large.
Garbage-free reversible constant multipliers for arbitrary integers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mogensen, Torben Ægidius
2013-01-01
We present a method for constructing reversible circuitry for multiplying integers by arbitrary integer constants. The method is based on Mealy machines and gives circuits whose size are (in the worst case) linear in the size of the constant. This makes the method unsuitable for large constants...
Diversity and non-integer differentiation for system dynamics
Oustaloup, Alain
2014-01-01
Based on a structured approach to diversity, notably inspired by various forms of diversity of natural origins, Diversity and Non-integer Derivation Applied to System Dynamics provides a study framework to the introduction of the non-integer derivative as a modeling tool. Modeling tools that highlight unsuspected dynamical performances (notably damping performances) in an ""integer"" approach of mechanics and automation are also included. Written to enable a two-tier reading, this is an essential resource for scientists, researchers, and industrial engineers interested in this subject area. Ta
Ye, Jing; Dang, Yaoguo; Li, Bingjun
2018-01-01
Grey-Markov forecasting model is a combination of grey prediction model and Markov chain which show obvious optimization effects for data sequences with characteristics of non-stationary and volatility. However, the state division process in traditional Grey-Markov forecasting model is mostly based on subjective real numbers that immediately affects the accuracy of forecasting values. To seek the solution, this paper introduces the central-point triangular whitenization weight function in state division to calculate possibilities of research values in each state which reflect preference degrees in different states in an objective way. On the other hand, background value optimization is applied in the traditional grey model to generate better fitting data. By this means, the improved Grey-Markov forecasting model is built. Finally, taking the grain production in Henan Province as an example, it verifies this model's validity by comparing with GM(1,1) based on background value optimization and the traditional Grey-Markov forecasting model.
Multiattribute Grey Target Decision Method Based on Soft Set Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xia Wang
2014-01-01
Full Text Available With respect to the Multiattribute decision-making problems in which the evaluation attribute sets are different and the evaluating values of alternatives are interval grey numbers, a multiattribute grey target decision-making method in which the attribute sets are different was proposed. The concept of grey soft set was defined, and its “AND” operation was assigned by combining the intersection operation of grey number. The expression approach of new grey soft set of attribute sets considering by all decision makers were gained by applying the “AND” operation of grey soft set, and the weights of synthesis attribute were proved. The alternatives were ranked according to the size of distance of bull’s eyes of each alternative under synthetic attribute sets. The green supplier selection was illustrated to demonstrate the effectiveness of proposed model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Jianyun; Liu, Pei; Zhou, Zhe; Ma, Linwei; Li, Zheng; Ni, Weidou
2014-01-01
Highlights: • Integration of heat streams with HRSG in a polygeneration system is studied. • A mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is proposed to optimize heat network. • Operating parameters and heat network configuration are optimized simultaneously. • The optimized heat network highly depends on the HRSG type and model specification. - Abstract: A large number of heat flows at various temperature and pressure levels exist in a polygeneration plant which co-produces electricity and chemical products. Integration of these external heat flows in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) has great potential to further enhance energy efficiency of such a plant; however, it is a challenging problem arising from the large design space of heat exchanger network. In this paper, a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model is developed for the design optimization of a HRSG with consideration of all alternative matches between the HRSG and external heat flows. This model is applied to four polygeneration cases with different HRSG types, and results indicate that the optimized heat network mainly depends on the HRSG type and the model specification
Superposition of two optical vortices with opposite integer or non-integer orbital angular momentum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Fernando Díaz Meza
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This work develops a brief proposal to achieve the superposition of two opposite vortex beams, both with integer or non-integer mean value of the orbital angular momentum. The first part is about the generation of this kind of spatial light distributions through a modified Brown and Lohmann’s hologram. The inclusion of a simple mathematical expression into the pixelated grid’s transmittance function, based in Fourier domain properties, shifts the diffraction orders counterclockwise and clockwise to the same point and allows the addition of different modes. The strategy is theoretically and experimentally validated for the case of two opposite rotation helical wavefronts.
Coupling effects of grey-grey separate spatial screening soliton pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jiang Qichang; Su Yanli; Ji Xuanmang
2012-01-01
The existence and coupling effects of grey-grey separate spatial soliton pairs in a biased series non-photovoltaic photorefractive crystal circuit are investigated in this paper. The numerical solution of grey-grey soliton pairs is derived. The coupling effects between two grey solitons resulting from the input optical intensity and crystal temperature are analyzed numerically. The results show that when the input optical intensity of one crystal changes, two grey solitons in a soliton pair will all change; that is, two grey solitons can affect each other by the light-induced current that flows from one crystal to another. When the temperature of one crystal increases, the intensity width of the grey soliton in this crystal first decreases and then increases. Simultaneously, the intensity width of another grey soliton increases monotonically.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Frahm, K M; Shepelyansky, D L; Chepelianskii, A D
2012-01-01
We up a directed network tracing links from a given integer to its divisors and analyze the properties of the Google matrix of this network. The PageRank vector of this matrix is computed numerically and it is shown that its probability is approximately inversely proportional to the PageRank index thus being similar to the Zipf law and the dependence established for the World Wide Web. The spectrum of the Google matrix of integers is characterized by a large gap and a relatively small number of nonzero eigenvalues. A simple semi-analytical expression for the PageRank of integers is derived that allows us to find this vector for matrices of billion size. This network provides a new PageRank order of integers. (paper)
Zhang, Huiling; Huang, Qingsheng; Bei, Zhendong; Wei, Yanjie; Floudas, Christodoulos A
2016-03-01
In this article, we present COMSAT, a hybrid framework for residue contact prediction of transmembrane (TM) proteins, integrating a support vector machine (SVM) method and a mixed integer linear programming (MILP) method. COMSAT consists of two modules: COMSAT_SVM which is trained mainly on position-specific scoring matrix features, and COMSAT_MILP which is an ab initio method based on optimization models. Contacts predicted by the SVM model are ranked by SVM confidence scores, and a threshold is trained to improve the reliability of the predicted contacts. For TM proteins with no contacts above the threshold, COMSAT_MILP is used. The proposed hybrid contact prediction scheme was tested on two independent TM protein sets based on the contact definition of 14 Å between Cα-Cα atoms. First, using a rigorous leave-one-protein-out cross validation on the training set of 90 TM proteins, an accuracy of 66.8%, a coverage of 12.3%, a specificity of 99.3% and a Matthews' correlation coefficient (MCC) of 0.184 were obtained for residue pairs that are at least six amino acids apart. Second, when tested on a test set of 87 TM proteins, the proposed method showed a prediction accuracy of 64.5%, a coverage of 5.3%, a specificity of 99.4% and a MCC of 0.106. COMSAT shows satisfactory results when compared with 12 other state-of-the-art predictors, and is more robust in terms of prediction accuracy as the length and complexity of TM protein increase. COMSAT is freely accessible at http://hpcc.siat.ac.cn/COMSAT/. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Mixed-Integer Conic Linear Programming: Challenges and Perspectives
2013-10-01
The novel DCCs for MISOCO may be used in branch- and-cut algorithms when solving MISOCO problems. The experimental software CICLO was developed to...perform limited, but rigorous computational experiments. The CICLO solver utilizes continuous SOCO solvers, MOSEK, CPLES or SeDuMi, builds on the open...submitted Fall 2013. Software: 1. CICLO : Integer conic linear optimization package. Authors: J.C. Góez, T.K. Ralphs, Y. Fu, and T. Terlaky
Overview. Rethinking the grey literature's definition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikeda, Kiyoshi
2012-01-01
Grey literature said to do difficult to obtain through commercial publishers. Recently, according to the spread of institutional repositories, grey literature is published on the Web and its full text is open to the public, then it has become easily accessible. Yet, the accessibility of grey literature has not been fully resolved. In this paper, the author introduces the definition of grey literature based on the discussion of the International Conference on Grey Literature (International Conference on Grey literature) and tries to reorganize and discuss on issues concerning the problems of grey literature accessibility. The author indicates that there are still many challenges in this field, also indicates that stable access to the sources on the Web is not always guaranteed. It is concluded that expertises and experiences of a librarian should be leveraged to get solutions regarding the accessibility of grey literature. (author)
Mixed integer evolution strategies for parameter optimization.
Li, Rui; Emmerich, Michael T M; Eggermont, Jeroen; Bäck, Thomas; Schütz, M; Dijkstra, J; Reiber, J H C
2013-01-01
Evolution strategies (ESs) are powerful probabilistic search and optimization algorithms gleaned from biological evolution theory. They have been successfully applied to a wide range of real world applications. The modern ESs are mainly designed for solving continuous parameter optimization problems. Their ability to adapt the parameters of the multivariate normal distribution used for mutation during the optimization run makes them well suited for this domain. In this article we describe and study mixed integer evolution strategies (MIES), which are natural extensions of ES for mixed integer optimization problems. MIES can deal with parameter vectors consisting not only of continuous variables but also with nominal discrete and integer variables. Following the design principles of the canonical evolution strategies, they use specialized mutation operators tailored for the aforementioned mixed parameter classes. For each type of variable, the choice of mutation operators is governed by a natural metric for this variable type, maximal entropy, and symmetry considerations. All distributions used for mutation can be controlled in their shape by means of scaling parameters, allowing self-adaptation to be implemented. After introducing and motivating the conceptual design of the MIES, we study the optimality of the self-adaptation of step sizes and mutation rates on a generalized (weighted) sphere model. Moreover, we prove global convergence of the MIES on a very general class of problems. The remainder of the article is devoted to performance studies on artificial landscapes (barrier functions and mixed integer NK landscapes), and a case study in the optimization of medical image analysis systems. In addition, we show that with proper constraint handling techniques, MIES can also be applied to classical mixed integer nonlinear programming problems.
van der Velde, Jorien; Gromann, Paula M.; Swart, Marte; de Haan, Lieuwe; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Krabbendam, Lydia; Aleman, André
2015-01-01
Background Grey matter, both volume and concentration, has been proposed as an endophenotype for schizophrenia given a number of reports of grey matter abnormalities in relatives of patients with schizophrenia. However, previous studies on grey matter abnormalities in relatives have produced inconsistent results. The aim of the present study was to examine grey matter differences between controls and siblings of patients with schizophrenia and to examine whether the age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms of selected individuals could explain the previously reported inconsistencies. Methods We compared the grey matter volume and grey matter concentration of healthy siblings of patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls matched for age, sex and education using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Furthermore, we selected subsamples based on age (< 30 yr), genetic loading and subclinical psychotic symptoms to examine whether this would lead to different results. Results We included 89 siblings and 69 controls in our study. The results showed that siblings and controls did not differ significantly on grey matter volume or concentration. Furthermore, specifically selecting participants based on age, genetic loading or subclinical psychotic symptoms did not alter these findings. Limitations The main limitation was that subdividing the sample resulted in smaller samples for the subanalyses. Furthermore, we used MRI data from 2 different scanner sites. Conclusion These results indicate that grey matter measured through VBM might not be a suitable endophenotype for schizophrenia. PMID:25768029
Hard equality constrained integer knapsacks
Aardal, K.I.; Lenstra, A.K.; Cook, W.J.; Schulz, A.S.
2002-01-01
We consider the following integer feasibility problem: "Given positive integer numbers a 0, a 1,..., a n, with gcd(a 1,..., a n) = 1 and a = (a 1,..., a n), does there exist a nonnegative integer vector x satisfying ax = a 0?" Some instances of this type have been found to be extremely hard to solve
Grey Guide: A Community Driven Open Resource Project in Grey Literature
Biagioni, Stefania; Giannini, Silvia
2017-01-01
In December 2013, the GreyGuide Project was formerly launched as an online forum and repository of good practice in grey literature. The GreyGuide manages Open Source Repositories and provides a unique resource in the field of grey literature that is long awaited and which responds to the information needs of a diverse, international grey literature community. As GreyNet's web access Portal, the GreyGuide now provides a wealth of content that was previously either confined to web pages or was...
Günlük, O.; Woeginger, G.J.
2011-01-01
This volume contains the 33 papers presented at IPCO 2011, the 15th Conference on Integer Programming and Combinatorial Optimization, held during June 15–17, 2011 at the IBM T.J. Watson Research Center in New York, USA. IPCO conferences are sponsored by the Mathematical Optimization Society. The
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergio Elías Hernández
Full Text Available To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation.Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry.Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators.The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.
Hernández, Sergio Elías; Suero, José; Barros, Alfonso; González-Mora, José Luis; Rubia, Katya
2016-01-01
To investigate regional differences in grey matter volume associated with the practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation. Twenty three experienced practitioners of Sahaja Yoga Meditation and twenty three non-meditators matched on age, gender and education level, were scanned using structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging and their grey matter volume were compared using Voxel-Based Morphometry. Grey matter volume was larger in meditators relative to non-meditators across the whole brain. In addition, grey matter volume was larger in several predominantly right hemispheric regions: in insula, ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex, inferior temporal and parietal cortices as well as in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left insula. No areas with larger grey matter volume were found in non-meditators relative to meditators. The study shows that long-term practice of Sahaja Yoga Meditation is associated with larger grey matter volume overall, and with regional enlargement in several right hemispheric cortical and subcortical brain regions that are associated with sustained attention, self-control, compassion and interoceptive perception. The increased grey matter volume in these attention and self-control mediating regions suggests use-dependent enlargement with regular practice of this meditation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santos Coelho, Leandro dos
2009-01-01
The reliability-redundancy optimization problems can involve the selection of components with multiple choices and redundancy levels that produce maximum benefits, and are subject to the cost, weight, and volume constraints. Many classical mathematical methods have failed in handling nonconvexities and nonsmoothness in reliability-redundancy optimization problems. As an alternative to the classical optimization approaches, the meta-heuristics have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solutions. One of these meta-heuristics is the particle swarm optimization (PSO). PSO is a population-based heuristic optimization technique inspired by social behavior of bird flocking and fish schooling. This paper presents an efficient PSO algorithm based on Gaussian distribution and chaotic sequence (PSO-GC) to solve the reliability-redundancy optimization problems. In this context, two examples in reliability-redundancy design problems are evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed PSO-GC is a promising optimization technique. PSO-GC performs well for the two examples of mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy applications considered in this paper. The solutions obtained by the PSO-GC are better than the previously best-known solutions available in the recent literature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos Coelho, Leandro dos [Industrial and Systems Engineering Graduate Program, LAS/PPGEPS, Pontifical Catholic University of Parana, PUCPR, Imaculada Conceicao, 1155, 80215-901 Curitiba, Parana (Brazil)], E-mail: leandro.coelho@pucpr.br
2009-04-15
The reliability-redundancy optimization problems can involve the selection of components with multiple choices and redundancy levels that produce maximum benefits, and are subject to the cost, weight, and volume constraints. Many classical mathematical methods have failed in handling nonconvexities and nonsmoothness in reliability-redundancy optimization problems. As an alternative to the classical optimization approaches, the meta-heuristics have been given much attention by many researchers due to their ability to find an almost global optimal solutions. One of these meta-heuristics is the particle swarm optimization (PSO). PSO is a population-based heuristic optimization technique inspired by social behavior of bird flocking and fish schooling. This paper presents an efficient PSO algorithm based on Gaussian distribution and chaotic sequence (PSO-GC) to solve the reliability-redundancy optimization problems. In this context, two examples in reliability-redundancy design problems are evaluated. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed PSO-GC is a promising optimization technique. PSO-GC performs well for the two examples of mixed-integer programming in reliability-redundancy applications considered in this paper. The solutions obtained by the PSO-GC are better than the previously best-known solutions available in the recent literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Waddell, Lucas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Muldoon, Frank [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Henry, Stephen Michael [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hoffman, Matthew John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zwerneman, April Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Backlund, Peter [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Melander, Darryl J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lawton, Craig R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rice, Roy Eugene [Teledyne Brown Engineering, Huntsville, AL (United States)
2017-09-01
In order to effectively plan the management and modernization of their large and diverse fleets of vehicles, Program Executive Office Ground Combat Systems (PEO GCS) and Program Executive Office Combat Support and Combat Service Support (PEO CS&CSS) commis- sioned the development of a large-scale portfolio planning optimization tool. This software, the Capability Portfolio Analysis Tool (CPAT), creates a detailed schedule that optimally prioritizes the modernization or replacement of vehicles within the fleet - respecting numerous business rules associated with fleet structure, budgets, industrial base, research and testing, etc., while maximizing overall fleet performance through time. This paper contains a thor- ough documentation of the terminology, parameters, variables, and constraints that comprise the fleet management mixed integer linear programming (MILP) mathematical formulation. This paper, which is an update to the original CPAT formulation document published in 2015 (SAND2015-3487), covers the formulation of important new CPAT features.
Rough Neutrosophic Multi-Attribute Decision-Making Based on Grey Relational Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kalyan Mondal
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents rough netrosophic multiattribute decision making based on grey relational analysis. While the concept of neutrosophic sets is a powerful logic to deal with indeterminate and inconsistent data, the theory of rough neutrosophic sets is also a powerful mathematical tool to deal with incompleteness. The rating of all alternatives is expressed with the upper and lower approximation operator and the pair of neutrosophic sets which are characterized by truth-membership degree, indeterminacy-membership degree, and falsitymembership degree. Weight of each attribute is partially known to decision maker. We extend the neutrosophic grey relational analysis method to rough neutrosophic grey relational analysis method and apply it to multiattribute decision making problem. Information entropy method is used to obtain the partially known attribute weights. Accumulated geometric operator is defined to transform rough neutrosophic number (neutrosophic pair to single valued neutrosophic number. Neutrosophic grey relational coefficient is determined by using Hamming distance between each alternative to ideal rough neutrosophic estimates reliability solution and the ideal rough neutrosophic estimates un-reliability solution. Then rough neutrosophic relational degree is defined to determine the ranking order of all alternatives. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate the applicability and efficiency of the proposed approach.
An integer programming model for gate assignment problem at airline terminals
Chun, Chong Kok; Nordin, Syarifah Zyurina
2015-05-01
In this paper, we concentrate on a gate assignment problem (GAP) at the airlines terminal. Our problem is to assign an arrival plane to a suitable gate. There are two considerations needed to take. One of its is passenger walking distance from arrival gate to departure gate while another consideration is the transport baggage distance from one gate to another. Our objective is to minimize the total distance between the gates that related to assign the arrival plane to the suitable gates. An integer linear programming (ILP) model is proposed to solve this gate assignment problem. We also conduct a computational experiment using CPLEX 12.1 solver in AIMMS 3.10 software to analyze the performance of the model. Results of the computational experiments are presented. The efficiency of flights assignment is depends on the ratio of the weight for both total passenger traveling distances and total baggage transport distances.
Comparison on Integer Wavelet Transforms in Spherical Wavelet Based Image Based Relighting
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WANGZe; LEEYin; LEUNGChising; WONGTientsin; ZHUYisheng
2003-01-01
To provide a good quality rendering in the Image based relighting (IBL) system, tremendous reference images under various illumination conditions are needed. Therefore data compression is essential to enable interactive action. And the rendering speed is another crucial consideration for real applications. Based on Spherical wavelet transform (SWT), this paper presents a quick representation method with Integer wavelet transform (IWT) for the IBL system. It focuses on comparison on different IWTs with the Embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) used in the IBL system. The whole compression procedure contains two major compression steps. Firstly, SWT is applied to consider the correlation among different reference images. Secondly, the SW transformed images are compressed with IWT based image compression approach. Two IWTs are used and good results are showed in the simulations.
Grey-Box Modelling of Pharmacokinetic /Pharmacodynamic Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tornøe, Christoffer Wenzel; Jacobsen, Judith L.; Pedersen, Oluf
2004-01-01
Grey-box pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) modelling is presented as a promising way of modelling PK/PD systems. The concept behind grey-box modelling is based on combining physiological knowledge along with information from data in the estimation of model parameters. Grey-box modelling...
Application of mixed-integer linear programming in a car seats assembling process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jorge Iván Perez Rave
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a decision problem involving a car parts manufacturing company is modeled in order to prepare the company for an increase in demand. Mixed-integer linear programming was used with the following decision variables: creating a second shift, purchasing additional equipment, determining the required work force, and other alternatives involving new manners of work distribution that make it possible to separate certain operations from some workplaces and integrate them into others to minimize production costs. The model was solved using GAMS. The solution consisted of programming 19 workers under a configuration that merges two workplaces and separates some operations from some workplaces. The solution did not involve purchasing additional machinery or creating a second shift. As a result, the manufacturing paradigms that had been valid in the company for over 14 years were broken. This study allowed the company to increase its productivity and obtain significant savings. It also shows the benefits of joint work between academia and companies, and provides useful information for professors, students and engineers regarding production and continuous improvement.
Repozitář a webový portál GreyGuide:Odpověď GreyNet na Deklaraci z Pisy
Farace, Dominic
2014-01-01
In December 2013, the GreyGuide was launched and in early 2014 GreyNet welcomed far reaching developments in its resource management. These developments are in line with the “Pisa Declaration on Policy Development for Grey Literature Resources (May 16, 2014)”. In compliance with this 15-point roadmap, a selection of GreyNet’s web-based content will now migrate to the GreyGuide allowing for seamless browse, search, and retrieval across its collections.
Xie, Yan; Li, Mu; Zhou, Jin; Zheng, Chang-zheng
2009-07-01
Agricultural machinery total power is an important index to reflex and evaluate the level of agricultural mechanization. It is the power source of agricultural production, and is the main factors to enhance the comprehensive agricultural production capacity expand production scale and increase the income of the farmers. Its demand is affected by natural, economic, technological and social and other "grey" factors. Therefore, grey system theory can be used to analyze the development of agricultural machinery total power. A method based on genetic algorithm optimizing grey modeling process is introduced in this paper. This method makes full use of the advantages of the grey prediction model and characteristics of genetic algorithm to find global optimization. So the prediction model is more accurate. According to data from a province, the GM (1, 1) model for predicting agricultural machinery total power was given based on the grey system theories and genetic algorithm. The result indicates that the model can be used as agricultural machinery total power an effective tool for prediction.
Mixed-integer nonlinear approach for the optimal scheduling of a head-dependent hydro chain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Catalao, J.P.S.; Pousinho, H.M.I. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Beira Interior, R. Fonte do Lameiro, 6201-001 Covilha (Portugal); Mendes, V.M.F. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, R. Conselheiro Emidio Navarro, 1950-062 Lisbon (Portugal)
2010-08-15
This paper is on the problem of short-term hydro scheduling (STHS), particularly concerning a head-dependent hydro chain. We propose a novel mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP) approach, considering hydroelectric power generation as a nonlinear function of water discharge and of the head. As a new contribution to earlier studies, we model the on-off behavior of the hydro plants using integer variables, in order to avoid water discharges at forbidden areas. Thus, an enhanced STHS is provided due to the more realistic modeling presented in this paper. Our approach has been applied successfully to solve a test case based on one of the Portuguese cascaded hydro systems with a negligible computational time requirement. (author)
Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); Boekhorst, Albert K. (UvA); Schöpfel, Joachim (INIST-CNRS); Stock, Christiane (INIST-CNRS); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service
2005-01-01
Grey literature, an area of interest to special librarians and information professionals, can be traced back a half-century. However, grey literature as a specialized field in information studies is less than a decade old. At GL'97 in Luxembourg, grey literature was redefined "as information produced on all levels of government, academics, business and industry in electronic and print formats not controlled by commercial publishers (i.e. where publishing is not the primary activity of the pro...
Research on a Novel Kernel Based Grey Prediction Model and Its Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xin Ma
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The discrete grey prediction models have attracted considerable interest of research due to its effectiveness to improve the modelling accuracy of the traditional grey prediction models. The autoregressive GM(1,1 model, abbreviated as ARGM(1,1, is a novel discrete grey model which is easy to use and accurate in prediction of approximate nonhomogeneous exponential time series. However, the ARGM(1,1 is essentially a linear model; thus, its applicability is still limited. In this paper a novel kernel based ARGM(1,1 model is proposed, abbreviated as KARGM(1,1. The KARGM(1,1 has a nonlinear function which can be expressed by a kernel function using the kernel method, and its modelling procedures are presented in details. Two case studies of predicting the monthly gas well production are carried out with the real world production data. The results of KARGM(1,1 model are compared to the existing discrete univariate grey prediction models, including ARGM(1,1, NDGM(1,1,k, DGM(1,1, and NGBMOP, and it is shown that the KARGM(1,1 outperforms the other four models.
Adams, Jean; Hillier-Brown, Frances C; Moore, Helen J; Lake, Amelia A; Araujo-Soares, Vera; White, Martin; Summerbell, Carolyn
2016-09-29
Grey literature includes a range of documents not controlled by commercial publishing organisations. This means that grey literature can be difficult to search and retrieve for evidence synthesis. Much knowledge and evidence in public health, and other fields, accumulates from innovation in practice. This knowledge may not even be of sufficient formality to meet the definition of grey literature. We term this knowledge 'grey information'. Grey information may be even harder to search for and retrieve than grey literature. On three previous occasions, we have attempted to systematically search for and synthesise public health grey literature and information-both to summarise the extent and nature of particular classes of interventions and to synthesise results of evaluations. Here, we briefly describe these three 'case studies' but focus on our post hoc critical reflections on searching for and synthesising grey literature and information garnered from our experiences of these case studies. We believe these reflections will be useful to future researchers working in this area. Issues discussed include search methods, searching efficiency, replicability of searches, data management, data extraction, assessing study 'quality', data synthesis, time and resources, and differentiating evidence synthesis from primary research. Information on applied public health research questions relating to the nature and range of public health interventions, as well as many evaluations of these interventions, may be predominantly, or only, held in grey literature and grey information. Evidence syntheses on these topics need, therefore, to embrace grey literature and information. Many typical systematic review methods for searching, appraising, managing, and synthesising the evidence base can be adapted for use with grey literature and information. Evidence synthesisers should carefully consider the opportunities and problems offered by including grey literature and information
Planning of fuel coal imports using a mixed integer programming method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shih, L.H. [National Cheng Kung University, Tainan (Taiwan). Dept. of Mineral and Petroleum Engineering
1997-12-31
In the public utility and commercial fuel industries, commodities from multiple supply sources are sometimes blended before use to reduce costs and assure quality. A typical example of these commodities is the fuel coal used in coal fired power plants. The diversity of the supply sources for these plants makes the planning and scheduling of fuel coal logistics difficult, especially for a power company that has more than one power plant. This study proposes a mixed integer programming model that provides planning and scheduling of coal imports from multiple suppliers for the Taiwan Power Company. The objective is to minimize total inventory cost by minimizing procurement cost, transportation cost and holding cost. Constraints on the system include company procurement policy, power plant demand, harbor unloading capacity, inventory balance equations, blending requirements, and safety stock. An example problem is presented using the central coal logistics system of the Taiwan Power Company to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model.
Planning of fuel coal imports using a mixed integer programming method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shih, L.H.
1997-01-01
In the public utility and commercial fuel industries, commodities from multiple supply sources are sometimes blended before use to reduce costs and assure quality. A typical example of these commodities is the fuel coal used in coal fired power plants. The diversity of the supply sources for these plants makes the planning and scheduling of fuel coal logistics difficult, especially for a power company that has more than one power plant. This study proposes a mixed integer programming model that provides planning and scheduling of coal imports from multiple suppliers for the Taiwan Power Company. The objective is to minimize total inventory cost by minimizing procurement cost, transportation cost and holding cost. Constraints on the system include company procurement policy, power plant demand, harbor unloading capacity, inventory balance equations, blending requirements, and safety stock. An example problem is presented using the central coal logistics system of the Taiwan Power Company to demonstrate the validity of the proposed model
Flow Formulations for Curriculum-based Course Timetabling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagger, Niels-Christian Fink; Kristiansen, Simon; Sørensen, Matias
2017-01-01
lower bound on one data instance in the benchmark data set from the second international timetabling competition. Regarding upper bounds, the formulation based on the minimum cost flow problem performs better on average than other mixed integer programming approaches for the CTT.......In this paper we present two mixed-integer programming formulations for the Curriculum based Course Timetabling Problem (CTT). We show that the formulations contain underlying network structures by dividing the CTT into two separate models and then connect the two models using flow formulation...... techniques. The first mixed-integer programming formulation is based on an underlying minimum cost flow problem, which decreases the number of integer variables significantly and improves the performance compared to an intuitive mixed-integer programming formulation. The second formulation is based...
Irmeilyana, Puspita, Fitri Maya; Indrawati
2016-02-01
The pricing for wireless networks is developed by considering linearity factors, elasticity price and price factors. Mixed Integer Nonlinear Programming of wireless pricing model is proposed as the nonlinear programming problem that can be solved optimally using LINGO 13.0. The solutions are expected to give some information about the connections between the acceptance factor and the price. Previous model worked on the model that focuses on bandwidth as the QoS attribute. The models attempt to maximize the total price for a connection based on QoS parameter. The QoS attributes used will be the bandwidth and the end to end delay that affect the traffic. The maximum goal to maximum price is achieved when the provider determine the requirement for the increment or decrement of price change due to QoS change and amount of QoS value.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ommen, Torben Schmidt; Markussen, Wiebke Brix; Elmegaard, Brian
2014-01-01
In the paper, three frequently used operation optimisation methods are examined with respect to their impact on operation management of the combined utility technologies for electric power and DH (district heating) of eastern Denmark. The investigation focusses on individual plant operation...... differences and differences between the solution found by each optimisation method. One of the investigated approaches utilises LP (linear programming) for optimisation, one uses LP with binary operation constraints, while the third approach uses NLP (non-linear programming). The LP model is used...... as a benchmark, as this type is frequently used, and has the lowest amount of constraints of the three. A comparison of the optimised operation of a number of units shows significant differences between the three methods. Compared to the reference, the use of binary integer variables, increases operation...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Su Yanli; Jiang Qichang; Ji Xuanmang
2010-01-01
The incoherently coupled grey-grey screening-photovoltaic spatial soliton pairs are predicted in biased two-photon photovoltaic photorefractive crystals under steady-state conditions. These grey-grey screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs can be established provided that the incident beams have the same polarization, wavelength, and are mutually incoherent. The grey-grey screening-photovoltaic soliton pairs can be considered as the united form of grey-grey screening soliton pairs and open or closed-circuit grey-grey photovoltaic soliton pairs. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
GreyGuide. Poster presentation
Biagioni, Stefania; Farace, Dominic
2014-01-01
Welcome to the GreyGuide, a repository of good practices and resources in grey literature. The GreyGuide seeks to capture proposed as well as published practices dealing with the supply and demand sides of grey literature. This is a collaborative project involving GreyNet International and ISTI-CNR. The launch of the GreyGuide Repository took place in December 2013 at the Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature. Since then, the acquisition of both proposed and published good pra...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Souza Filho, Erito M.; Bahiense, Laura; Ferreira Filho, Virgilio J.M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE); Lima, Leonardo [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica Celso Sukow da Fonseca (CEFET-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)
2008-07-01
Pipeline are known as the most reliable and economical mode of transportation for petroleum and its derivatives, especially when large amounts of products have to be pumped for large distances. In this work we address the short-term schedule of a pipeline system comprising the distribution of several petroleum derivatives from a single oil refinery to several depots, connected to local consumer markets, through a single multi-product pipeline. We propose an integer linear programming formulation and a variable neighborhood search meta-heuristic in order to compare the performances of the exact and heuristic approaches to the problem. Computational tests in C language and MOSEL/XPRESS-MP language are performed over a real Brazilian pipeline system. (author)
Slip and Slide Method of Factoring Trinomials with Integer Coefficients over the Integers
Donnell, William A.
2012-01-01
In intermediate and college algebra courses there are a number of methods for factoring quadratic trinomials with integer coefficients over the integers. Some of these methods have been given names, such as trial and error, reversing FOIL, AC method, middle term splitting method and slip and slide method. The purpose of this article is to discuss…
Learning oncogenetic networks by reducing to mixed integer linear programming.
Shahrabi Farahani, Hossein; Lagergren, Jens
2013-01-01
Cancer can be a result of accumulation of different types of genetic mutations such as copy number aberrations. The data from tumors are cross-sectional and do not contain the temporal order of the genetic events. Finding the order in which the genetic events have occurred and progression pathways are of vital importance in understanding the disease. In order to model cancer progression, we propose Progression Networks, a special case of Bayesian networks, that are tailored to model disease progression. Progression networks have similarities with Conjunctive Bayesian Networks (CBNs) [1],a variation of Bayesian networks also proposed for modeling disease progression. We also describe a learning algorithm for learning Bayesian networks in general and progression networks in particular. We reduce the hard problem of learning the Bayesian and progression networks to Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP). MILP is a Non-deterministic Polynomial-time complete (NP-complete) problem for which very good heuristics exists. We tested our algorithm on synthetic and real cytogenetic data from renal cell carcinoma. We also compared our learned progression networks with the networks proposed in earlier publications. The software is available on the website https://bitbucket.org/farahani/diprog.
Multi-task feature selection in microarray data by binary integer programming.
Lan, Liang; Vucetic, Slobodan
2013-12-20
A major challenge in microarray classification is that the number of features is typically orders of magnitude larger than the number of examples. In this paper, we propose a novel feature filter algorithm to select the feature subset with maximal discriminative power and minimal redundancy by solving a quadratic objective function with binary integer constraints. To improve the computational efficiency, the binary integer constraints are relaxed and a low-rank approximation to the quadratic term is applied. The proposed feature selection algorithm was extended to solve multi-task microarray classification problems. We compared the single-task version of the proposed feature selection algorithm with 9 existing feature selection methods on 4 benchmark microarray data sets. The empirical results show that the proposed method achieved the most accurate predictions overall. We also evaluated the multi-task version of the proposed algorithm on 8 multi-task microarray datasets. The multi-task feature selection algorithm resulted in significantly higher accuracy than when using the single-task feature selection methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I Gede Agus Widyadana
2001-01-01
Full Text Available The decisions to choose appropriate tools for solving industrial problems are not just tools that achieve optimal solution only but it should consider computation time too. One of industrial problems that still difficult to achieve both criteria is scheduling problem. This paper discuss comparison between mixed integer programming which result optimal solution and heuristic method to solve job shop scheduling problem with separable sequence-dependent setup. The problems are generated and the result shows that the heuristic methods still cannot satisfy optimal solution.
Automatic Design of Synthetic Gene Circuits through Mixed Integer Non-linear Programming
Huynh, Linh; Kececioglu, John; Köppe, Matthias; Tagkopoulos, Ilias
2012-01-01
Automatic design of synthetic gene circuits poses a significant challenge to synthetic biology, primarily due to the complexity of biological systems, and the lack of rigorous optimization methods that can cope with the combinatorial explosion as the number of biological parts increases. Current optimization methods for synthetic gene design rely on heuristic algorithms that are usually not deterministic, deliver sub-optimal solutions, and provide no guaranties on convergence or error bounds. Here, we introduce an optimization framework for the problem of part selection in synthetic gene circuits that is based on mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP), which is a deterministic method that finds the globally optimal solution and guarantees convergence in finite time. Given a synthetic gene circuit, a library of characterized parts, and user-defined constraints, our method can find the optimal selection of parts that satisfy the constraints and best approximates the objective function given by the user. We evaluated the proposed method in the design of three synthetic circuits (a toggle switch, a transcriptional cascade, and a band detector), with both experimentally constructed and synthetic promoter libraries. Scalability and robustness analysis shows that the proposed framework scales well with the library size and the solution space. The work described here is a step towards a unifying, realistic framework for the automated design of biological circuits. PMID:22536398
Locating grey literature on communication disorders.
Shpilko, Inna
2005-01-01
This article provides an overview of selected Web-based resources containing grey literature in the area of communication disorders. It is geared to practitioners, researchers, students, and consumers seeking reliable, freely available scientific information. Grey (or gray) literature has been defined as "that which is produced on all levels of government, academics, business, and industry in print and electronic formats, but which is not controlled by commercial publishers."1 This paper reviews various general reference sources potentially containing grey literature on communication disorders. This review includes identification of the methods specialists in this field use to obtain this valuable, yet often overlooked, literature. Access points and search tools for identifying grey literature on communication disorders are recommended. Commercial databases containing grey literature are not included. Conclusions presented in this article are considered complementary to traditionally published information resources on communication disorders, such as scholarly journals, online databases, etc.
Alvarado, Michelle; Ntaimo, Lewis
2018-03-01
Oncology clinics are often burdened with scheduling large volumes of cancer patients for chemotherapy treatments under limited resources such as the number of nurses and chairs. These cancer patients require a series of appointments over several weeks or months and the timing of these appointments is critical to the treatment's effectiveness. Additionally, the appointment duration, the acuity levels of each appointment, and the availability of clinic nurses are uncertain. The timing constraints, stochastic parameters, rising treatment costs, and increased demand of outpatient oncology clinic services motivate the need for efficient appointment schedules and clinic operations. In this paper, we develop three mean-risk stochastic integer programming (SIP) models, referred to as SIP-CHEMO, for the problem of scheduling individual chemotherapy patient appointments and resources. These mean-risk models are presented and an algorithm is devised to improve computational speed. Computational results were conducted using a simulation model and results indicate that the risk-averse SIP-CHEMO model with the expected excess mean-risk measure can decrease patient waiting times and nurse overtime when compared to deterministic scheduling algorithms by 42 % and 27 %, respectively.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu Fu
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Recently, bio-inspired artificial muscles based on ionic polymers have shown a bright perspective in engineering and medical research, but the inherent tremor behavior can cause instability of output response. In this paper, dynamic additional grey catastrophe prediction (DAGCP is proposed to forecast the occurrence time of tremor behavior, providing adequate preparation time for the suppression of the chitosan-based artificial muscles. DAGCP constructs various dimensions of time subsequence models under different starting points based on the threshold of tremor occurrence times and peak-to-peak values in unit time. Next, the appropriate subsequence is selected according to grey correlation degree and prediction accuracy, then it is updated with the newly generated values to achieve a real-time forecast of forthcoming tremor time. Compared with conventional grey catastrophe prediction (GCP, the proposed method has the following advantages: (1 the degradation of prediction accuracy caused by the immobilization of original parameters is prevented; (2 the dynamic input, real-time update and gradual forecast of time sequence are incorporated into the model. The experiment results show that the novel DAGCP can predict forthcoming tremor time earlier and more accurately than the conventional GCP. The generation mechanism of tremor behavior is illustrated as well.
Real-time process optimization based on grey-box neural models
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F. A. Cubillos
2007-09-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the feasibility of using grey-box neural models (GNM in Real Time Optimization (RTO. These models are based on a suitable combination of fundamental conservation laws and neural networks, being used in at least two different ways: to complement available phenomenological knowledge with empirical information, or to reduce dimensionality of complex rigorous physical models. We have observed that the benefits of using these simple adaptable models are counteracted by some difficulties associated with the solution of the optimization problem. Nonlinear Programming (NLP algorithms failed in finding the global optimum due to the fact that neural networks can introduce multimodal objective functions. One alternative considered to solve this problem was the use of some kind of evolutionary algorithms, like Genetic Algorithms (GA. Although these algorithms produced better results in terms of finding the appropriate region, they took long periods of time to reach the global optimum. It was found that a combination of genetic and nonlinear programming algorithms can be use to fast obtain the optimum solution. The proposed approach was applied to the Williams-Otto reactor, considering three different GNM models of increasing complexity. Results demonstrated that the use of GNM models and mixed GA/NLP optimization algorithms is a promissory approach for solving dynamic RTO problems.
Fornito, A; Yücel, M; Patti, J; Wood, S J; Pantelis, C
2009-03-01
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) is a popular tool for mapping neuroanatomical changes in schizophrenia patients. Several recent meta-analyses have identified the brain regions in which patients most consistently show grey matter reductions, although they have not examined whether such changes reflect differences in grey matter concentration (GMC) or grey matter volume (GMV). These measures assess different aspects of grey matter integrity, and may therefore reflect different pathological processes. In this study, we used the Anatomical Likelihood Estimation procedure to analyse significant differences reported in 37 VBM studies of schizophrenia patients, incorporating data from 1646 patients and 1690 controls, and compared the findings of studies using either GMC or GMV to index grey matter differences. Analysis of all studies combined indicated that grey matter reductions in a network of frontal, temporal, thalamic and striatal regions are among the most frequently reported in literature. GMC reductions were generally larger and more consistent than GMV reductions, and were more frequent in the insula, medial prefrontal, medial temporal and striatal regions. GMV reductions were more frequent in dorso-medial frontal cortex, and lateral and orbital frontal areas. These findings support the primacy of frontal, limbic, and subcortical dysfunction in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, and suggest that the grey matter changes observed with MRI may not necessarily result from a unitary pathological process.
Maximum likelihood pedigree reconstruction using integer linear programming.
Cussens, James; Bartlett, Mark; Jones, Elinor M; Sheehan, Nuala A
2013-01-01
Large population biobanks of unrelated individuals have been highly successful in detecting common genetic variants affecting diseases of public health concern. However, they lack the statistical power to detect more modest gene-gene and gene-environment interaction effects or the effects of rare variants for which related individuals are ideally required. In reality, most large population studies will undoubtedly contain sets of undeclared relatives, or pedigrees. Although a crude measure of relatedness might sometimes suffice, having a good estimate of the true pedigree would be much more informative if this could be obtained efficiently. Relatives are more likely to share longer haplotypes around disease susceptibility loci and are hence biologically more informative for rare variants than unrelated cases and controls. Distant relatives are arguably more useful for detecting variants with small effects because they are less likely to share masking environmental effects. Moreover, the identification of relatives enables appropriate adjustments of statistical analyses that typically assume unrelatedness. We propose to exploit an integer linear programming optimisation approach to pedigree learning, which is adapted to find valid pedigrees by imposing appropriate constraints. Our method is not restricted to small pedigrees and is guaranteed to return a maximum likelihood pedigree. With additional constraints, we can also search for multiple high-probability pedigrees and thus account for the inherent uncertainty in any particular pedigree reconstruction. The true pedigree is found very quickly by comparison with other methods when all individuals are observed. Extensions to more complex problems seem feasible. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Van Lier, J.B.
2010-01-01
Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different
Abu Ghunmi, L.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.
2011-01-01
Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different
A Mixed Integer Programming Poultry Feed Ration Optimisation Problem Using the Bat Algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Godfrey Chagwiza
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a feed ration problem is presented as a mixed integer programming problem. An attempt to find the optimal quantities of Moringa oleifera inclusion into the poultry feed ration was done and the problem was solved using the Bat algorithm and the Cplex solver. The study used findings of previous research to investigate the effects of Moringa oleifera inclusion in poultry feed ration. The results show that the farmer is likely to gain US$0.89 more if Moringa oleifera is included in the feed ration. Results also show superiority of the Bat algorithm in terms of execution time and number of iterations required to find the optimum solution as compared with the results obtained by the Cplex solver. Results revealed that there is a significant economic benefit of Moringa oleifera inclusion into the poultry feed ration.
A statistical mechanical approach to restricted integer partition functions
Zhou, Chi-Chun; Dai, Wu-Sheng
2018-05-01
The main aim of this paper is twofold: (1) suggesting a statistical mechanical approach to the calculation of the generating function of restricted integer partition functions which count the number of partitions—a way of writing an integer as a sum of other integers under certain restrictions. In this approach, the generating function of restricted integer partition functions is constructed from the canonical partition functions of various quantum gases. (2) Introducing a new type of restricted integer partition functions corresponding to general statistics which is a generalization of Gentile statistics in statistical mechanics; many kinds of restricted integer partition functions are special cases of this restricted integer partition function. Moreover, with statistical mechanics as a bridge, we reveal a mathematical fact: the generating function of restricted integer partition function is just the symmetric function which is a class of functions being invariant under the action of permutation groups. Using this approach, we provide some expressions of restricted integer partition functions as examples.
Screening synteny blocks in pairwise genome comparisons through integer programming.
Tang, Haibao; Lyons, Eric; Pedersen, Brent; Schnable, James C; Paterson, Andrew H; Freeling, Michael
2011-04-18
It is difficult to accurately interpret chromosomal correspondences such as true orthology and paralogy due to significant divergence of genomes from a common ancestor. Analyses are particularly problematic among lineages that have repeatedly experienced whole genome duplication (WGD) events. To compare multiple "subgenomes" derived from genome duplications, we need to relax the traditional requirements of "one-to-one" syntenic matchings of genomic regions in order to reflect "one-to-many" or more generally "many-to-many" matchings. However this relaxation may result in the identification of synteny blocks that are derived from ancient shared WGDs that are not of interest. For many downstream analyses, we need to eliminate weak, low scoring alignments from pairwise genome comparisons. Our goal is to objectively select subset of synteny blocks whose total scores are maximized while respecting the duplication history of the genomes in comparison. We call this "quota-based" screening of synteny blocks in order to appropriately fill a quota of syntenic relationships within one genome or between two genomes having WGD events. We have formulated the synteny block screening as an optimization problem known as "Binary Integer Programming" (BIP), which is solved using existing linear programming solvers. The computer program QUOTA-ALIGN performs this task by creating a clear objective function that maximizes the compatible set of synteny blocks under given constraints on overlaps and depths (corresponding to the duplication history in respective genomes). Such a procedure is useful for any pairwise synteny alignments, but is most useful in lineages affected by multiple WGDs, like plants or fish lineages. For example, there should be a 1:2 ploidy relationship between genome A and B if genome B had an independent WGD subsequent to the divergence of the two genomes. We show through simulations and real examples using plant genomes in the rosid superorder that the quota-based
Modeling an integrated hospital management planning problem using integer optimization approach
Sitepu, Suryati; Mawengkang, Herman; Irvan
2017-09-01
Hospital is a very important institution to provide health care for people. It is not surprising that nowadays the people’s demands for hospital is increasing. However, due to the rising cost of healthcare services, hospitals need to consider efficiencies in order to overcome these two problems. This paper deals with an integrated strategy of staff capacity management and bed allocation planning to tackle these problems. Mathematically, the strategy can be modeled as an integer linear programming problem. We solve the model using a direct neighborhood search approach, based on the notion of superbasic variables.
Grey-Theory-Based Optimization Model of Emergency Logistics Considering Time Uncertainty.
Qiu, Bao-Jian; Zhang, Jiang-Hua; Qi, Yuan-Tao; Liu, Yang
2015-01-01
Natural disasters occur frequently in recent years, causing huge casualties and property losses. Nowadays, people pay more and more attention to the emergency logistics problems. This paper studies the emergency logistics problem with multi-center, multi-commodity, and single-affected-point. Considering that the path near the disaster point may be damaged, the information of the state of the paths is not complete, and the travel time is uncertainty, we establish the nonlinear programming model that objective function is the maximization of time-satisfaction degree. To overcome these drawbacks: the incomplete information and uncertain time, this paper firstly evaluates the multiple roads of transportation network based on grey theory and selects the reliable and optimal path. Then simplify the original model under the scenario that the vehicle only follows the optimal path from the emergency logistics center to the affected point, and use Lingo software to solve it. The numerical experiments are presented to show the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
The NLS-Based Nonlinear Grey Multivariate Model for Forecasting Pollutant Emissions in China
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ling-Ling Pei
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The relationship between pollutant discharge and economic growth has been a major research focus in environmental economics. To accurately estimate the nonlinear change law of China’s pollutant discharge with economic growth, this study establishes a transformed nonlinear grey multivariable (TNGM (1, N model based on the nonlinear least square (NLS method. The Gauss–Seidel iterative algorithm was used to solve the parameters of the TNGM (1, N model based on the NLS basic principle. This algorithm improves the precision of the model by continuous iteration and constantly approximating the optimal regression coefficient of the nonlinear model. In our empirical analysis, the traditional grey multivariate model GM (1, N and the NLS-based TNGM (1, N models were respectively adopted to forecast and analyze the relationship among wastewater discharge per capita (WDPC, and per capita emissions of SO2 and dust, alongside GDP per capita in China during the period 1996–2015. Results indicated that the NLS algorithm is able to effectively help the grey multivariable model identify the nonlinear relationship between pollutant discharge and economic growth. The results show that the NLS-based TNGM (1, N model presents greater precision when forecasting WDPC, SO2 emissions and dust emissions per capita, compared to the traditional GM (1, N model; WDPC indicates a growing tendency aligned with the growth of GDP, while the per capita emissions of SO2 and dust reduce accordingly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hui LIN
2014-12-01
Full Text Available An improved fusion algorithm for multi-source remote sensing images with high spatial resolution and multi-spectral capacity is proposed based on traditional IHS fusion and grey correlation analysis. Firstly, grey absolute correlation degree is used to discriminate non-edge pixels and edge pixels in high-spatial resolution images, by which the weight of intensity component is identified in order to combine it with high-spatial resolution image. Therefore, image fusion is achieved using IHS inverse transform. The proposed method is applied to ETM+ multi-spectral images and panchromatic image, and Quickbird’s multi-spectral images and panchromatic image respectively. The experiments prove that the fusion method proposed in the paper can efficiently preserve spectral information of the original multi-spectral images while enhancing spatial resolution greatly. By comparison and analysis, the proposed fusion algorithm is better than traditional IHS fusion and fusion method based on grey correlation analysis and IHS transform.
Tang, Jiafu; Liu, Yang; Fung, Richard; Luo, Xinggang
2008-12-01
Manufacturers have a legal accountability to deal with industrial waste generated from their production processes in order to avoid pollution. Along with advances in waste recovery techniques, manufacturers may adopt various recycling strategies in dealing with industrial waste. With reuse strategies and technologies, byproducts or wastes will be returned to production processes in the iron and steel industry, and some waste can be recycled back to base material for reuse in other industries. This article focuses on a recovery strategies optimization problem for a typical class of industrial waste recycling process in order to maximize profit. There are multiple strategies for waste recycling available to generate multiple byproducts; these byproducts are then further transformed into several types of chemical products via different production patterns. A mixed integer programming model is developed to determine which recycling strategy and which production pattern should be selected with what quantity of chemical products corresponding to this strategy and pattern in order to yield maximum marginal profits. The sales profits of chemical products and the set-up costs of these strategies, patterns and operation costs of production are considered. A simulated annealing (SA) based heuristic algorithm is developed to solve the problem. Finally, an experiment is designed to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method. By comparing a single strategy to multiple strategies in an example, it is shown that the total sales profit of chemical products can be increased by around 25% through the simultaneous use of multiple strategies. This illustrates the superiority of combinatorial multiple strategies. Furthermore, the effects of the model parameters on profit are discussed to help manufacturers organize their waste recycling network.
Yin, Kedong; Wang, Pengyu; Li, Xuemei
2017-12-13
With respect to multi-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM) problems, where attribute values take the form of interval grey trapezoid fuzzy linguistic variables (IGTFLVs) and the weights (including expert and attribute weight) are unknown, improved grey relational MAGDM methods are proposed. First, the concept of IGTFLV, the operational rules, the distance between IGTFLVs, and the projection formula between the two IGTFLV vectors are defined. Second, the expert weights are determined by using the maximum proximity method based on the projection values between the IGTFLV vectors. The attribute weights are determined by the maximum deviation method and the priorities of alternatives are determined by improved grey relational analysis. Finally, an example is given to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method and the flexibility of IGTFLV.
7th Conference on Non-Integer Order Calculus and Its Applications
Dworak, Paweł
2016-01-01
This volume is devoted to presentation of new results of research on systems of non-integer order, called also fractional systems. Their analysis and practical implementation have been the object of spontaneous development for a few last decades. The fractional order models can depict a physical plant better than the classical integer order ones. This covers different research fields such as insulator properties, visco-elastic materials, electrodynamic, electrothermal, electrochemical, economic processes modelling etc. On the other hand fractional controllers often outperform their integer order counterparts. This volume contains new ideas and examples of implementation, theoretical and pure practical aspects of using a non-integer order calculus. It is divided into four parts covering: mathematical fundamentals, modeling and approximations, controllability, observability and stability problems and practical applications of fractional control systems. The first part expands the base of tools and methods of th...
Integer-valued trawl processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Lunde, Asger; Shephard, Neil
2014-01-01
the probabilistic properties of such processes in detail and, in addition, study volatility modulation and multivariate extensions within the new modelling framework. Moreover, we describe how the parameters of a trawl process can be estimated and obtain promising estimation results in our simulation study. Finally......This paper introduces a new continuous-time framework for modelling serially correlated count and integer-valued data. The key component in our new model is the class of integer-valued trawl processes, which are serially correlated, stationary, infinitely divisible processes. We analyse...
A wavelet-based ECG delineation algorithm for 32-bit integer online processing.
Di Marco, Luigi Y; Chiari, Lorenzo
2011-04-03
Since the first well-known electrocardiogram (ECG) delineator based on Wavelet Transform (WT) presented by Li et al. in 1995, a significant research effort has been devoted to the exploitation of this promising method. Its ability to reliably delineate the major waveform components (mono- or bi-phasic P wave, QRS, and mono- or bi-phasic T wave) would make it a suitable candidate for efficient online processing of ambulatory ECG signals. Unfortunately, previous implementations of this method adopt non-linear operators such as root mean square (RMS) or floating point algebra, which are computationally demanding. This paper presents a 32-bit integer, linear algebra advanced approach to online QRS detection and P-QRS-T waves delineation of a single lead ECG signal, based on WT. The QRS detector performance was validated on the MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database (sensitivity Se = 99.77%, positive predictive value P+ = 99.86%, on 109010 annotated beats) and on the European ST-T Database (Se = 99.81%, P+ = 99.56%, on 788050 annotated beats). The ECG delineator was validated on the QT Database, showing a mean error between manual and automatic annotation below 1.5 samples for all fiducial points: P-onset, P-peak, P-offset, QRS-onset, QRS-offset, T-peak, T-offset, and a mean standard deviation comparable to other established methods. The proposed algorithm exhibits reliable QRS detection as well as accurate ECG delineation, in spite of a simple structure built on integer linear algebra.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhifeng Zhong
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Owing to the environment, temperature, and so forth, photovoltaic power generation volume is always fluctuating and subsequently impacts power grid planning and operation seriously. Therefore, it is of great importance to make accurate prediction of the power generation of photovoltaic (PV system in advance. In order to improve the prediction accuracy, in this paper, a novel particle swarm optimization algorithm based multivariable grey theory model is proposed for short-term photovoltaic power generation volume forecasting. It is highlighted that, by integrating particle swarm optimization algorithm, the prediction accuracy of grey theory model is expected to be highly improved. In addition, large amounts of real data from two separate power stations in China are being employed for model verification. The experimental results indicate that, compared with the conventional grey model, the mean relative error in the proposed model has been reduced from 7.14% to 3.53%. The real practice demonstrates that the proposed optimization model outperforms the conventional grey model from both theoretical and practical perspectives.
Grey Wolf Optimizer Based on Powell Local Optimization Method for Clustering Analysis
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Sen Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available One heuristic evolutionary algorithm recently proposed is the grey wolf optimizer (GWO, inspired by the leadership hierarchy and hunting mechanism of grey wolves in nature. This paper presents an extended GWO algorithm based on Powell local optimization method, and we call it PGWO. PGWO algorithm significantly improves the original GWO in solving complex optimization problems. Clustering is a popular data analysis and data mining technique. Hence, the PGWO could be applied in solving clustering problems. In this study, first the PGWO algorithm is tested on seven benchmark functions. Second, the PGWO algorithm is used for data clustering on nine data sets. Compared to other state-of-the-art evolutionary algorithms, the results of benchmark and data clustering demonstrate the superior performance of PGWO algorithm.
GreyGuide Forum and Repository
Biagioni, Stefania; Farace, Dominic
2014-01-01
We present the GreyGuide: an online forum and repository of good practice in the field of grey literature. The launch of the GreyGuide Repository took place in December 2013 at the Fifteenth International Conference on Grey Literature. Since then, the acquisition of both proposed and published good practices are underway. The GreyGuide as an online forum is currently in a developmental stage and is influenced by the changes that have taken place in GreyNet's new infrastructure commencing in J...
A Statistically-Hiding Integer Commitment Scheme Based on Groups with Hidden Order
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Fujisaki, Eiichiro
2002-01-01
We present a statistically-hiding commitment scheme allowing commitment to arbitrary size integers, based on any (Abelian) group with certain properties, most importantly, that it is hard for the committer to compute its order. We also give efficient zero-knowledge protocols for proving knowledge...... input is chosen by the (possibly cheating) prover. - - Our results apply to any group with suitable properties. In particular, they apply to a much larger class of RSA moduli than the safe prime products proposed in [14] - Potential examples include RSA moduli, class groups and, with a slight...
Winward, Gideon Paul
2007-01-01
The reuse of grey water, for applications such as toilet flushing and irrigation, represents a potential sustainable solution to water shortages experienced by regions worldwide. Although reused grey water is not intended for potable use, the potential for transmission of waterborne pathogens by aerosol inhalation, topical contact, or indirect ingestion is a key concern for grey water reuse. This thesis explores the pathogen content of grey water and investigates pathogen remov...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kedong Yin
2017-12-01
Full Text Available With respect to multi-attribute group decision-making (MAGDM problems, where attribute values take the form of interval grey trapezoid fuzzy linguistic variables (IGTFLVs and the weights (including expert and attribute weight are unknown, improved grey relational MAGDM methods are proposed. First, the concept of IGTFLV, the operational rules, the distance between IGTFLVs, and the projection formula between the two IGTFLV vectors are defined. Second, the expert weights are determined by using the maximum proximity method based on the projection values between the IGTFLV vectors. The attribute weights are determined by the maximum deviation method and the priorities of alternatives are determined by improved grey relational analysis. Finally, an example is given to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method and the flexibility of IGTFLV.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo França Santos
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This work tries to solve a typical logistics problem of Navy of Brazil regards the allocation, transportation and distribution of genera refrigerated for Military Organizations within Grande Rio (RJ. After a brief review of literature on Linear/Integer Programming and some of their applications, we proposed the use of Integer Programming, using the Excel’s Solver as a tool for obtaining the optimal load configuration for the fleet, obtaining the lower distribution costs in order to meet the demand schedule. The assumptions were met in a first attempt with a single spreadsheet, but it could not find a convergent solution, without degeneration problems and with a reasonable solution time. A second solution was proposed separating the problem into three phases, which allowed us to highlight the potential and limitations of the Solver tool. This study showed the importance of formulating a realistic model and of a detailed critical analysis, which could be seen through the lack of convergence of the first solution and the success achieved by the second one.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Bo; Miao, Lingjuan; Wang, Shunting; Shen, Jun
2009-01-01
During attitude determination using a global positioning system (GPS), cycle slips occur due to the loss of lock and noise disturbance. Therefore, the integer ambiguity needs re-computation to isolate the error in carrier phase. This paper presents a fast method for integer ambiguity resolution for land vehicle application. After the cycle slips are detected, the velocity vector is utilized to obtain the rough baseline vector. The obtained baseline vector is substituted into carrier phase observation equations to solve the float ambiguity solution which can be used as a constraint to accelerate the integer ambiguity search procedure at next epochs. The probability of correct integer estimation in the expanded search space is analyzed. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method gives a fast approach to obtain new fixed ambiguities while the regular method takes longer time and sometimes results in incorrect solutions
Evaluation of appropriate technologies for grey water treatments and reuses.
Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf
2009-01-01
As water is becoming a rare resource, the onsite reuse and recycling of grey water is practiced in many countries as a sustainable solution to reduce the overall urban water demand. However, the lack of appropriate water quality standards or guidelines has hampered the appropriate grey water reuses. Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water treatment and reuse scheme is proposed and the treatment alternatives for grey water reuse are evaluated according to the grey water characteristics, the proposed standards and economical feasibility.
Optimization Research of Generation Investment Based on Linear Programming Model
Wu, Juan; Ge, Xueqian
Linear programming is an important branch of operational research and it is a mathematical method to assist the people to carry out scientific management. GAMS is an advanced simulation and optimization modeling language and it will combine a large number of complex mathematical programming, such as linear programming LP, nonlinear programming NLP, MIP and other mixed-integer programming with the system simulation. In this paper, based on the linear programming model, the optimized investment decision-making of generation is simulated and analyzed. At last, the optimal installed capacity of power plants and the final total cost are got, which provides the rational decision-making basis for optimized investments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jia Li-Xin; Dai Hao; Hui Meng
2010-01-01
This paper focuses on the synchronisation between fractional-order and integer-order chaotic systems. Based on Lyapunov stability theory and numerical differentiation, a nonlinear feedback controller is obtained to achieve the synchronisation between fractional-order and integer-order chaotic systems. Numerical simulation results are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of this method
Harmonic oscillator states with integer and non-integer orbital angular momentum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Land, Martin
2011-01-01
We study the quantum mechanical harmonic oscillator in two and three dimensions, with particular attention to the solutions as basis states for representing their respective symmetry groups — O(2), O(1,1), O(3), and O(2,1). The goal of this study is to establish a correspondence between Hilbert space descriptions found by solving the Schrodinger equation in polar coordinates, and Fock space descriptions constructed by expressing the symmetry operators in terms of creation/annihilation operators. We obtain wavefunctions characterized by a principal quantum number, the group Casimir eigenvalue, and one group generator whose eigenvalue is m + s, for integer m and real constant parameter s. For the three groups that contain O(2), the solutions split into two inequivalent representations, one associated with s = 0, from which we recover the familiar description of the oscillator as a product of one-dimensional solutions, and the other with s > 0 (in three dimensions, solutions are found for s = 0 and s = 1/2) whose solutions are non-separable in Cartesian coordinates, and are hence overlooked by the standard Fock space approach. The O(1,1) solutions are singlet states, restricted to zero eigenvalue of the symmetry operator, which represents the boost, not angular momentum. For O(2), a single set of creation and annihilation operators forms a ladder representation for the allowed oscillator states for any s, and the degeneracy of energy states is always finite. However, in three dimensions, the integer and half-integer eigenstates are qualitatively different: the former can be expressed as finite dimensional irreducible tensors under O(3) or O(2,1) while the latter exhibit infinite degeneracy. Creation operators that produce the allowed integer states by acting on the non-degenerate ground state are constructed as irreducible tensor products of the fundamental vector representation. However, the half-integer eigenstates are infinite-dimensional, as expected for the non
Reversible Integer Wavelet Transform for the Joint of Image Encryption and Watermarking
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bin Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In recent years, signal processing in the encrypted domain has attracted considerable research interest, especially embedding watermarking in encrypted image. In this work, a novel joint of image encryption and watermarking based on reversible integer wavelet transform is proposed. Firstly, the plain-image is encrypted by chaotic maps and reversible integer wavelet transform. Then the lossless watermarking is embedded in the encrypted image by reversible integer wavelet transform and histogram modification. Finally an encrypted image containing watermarking is obtained by the inverse integer wavelet transform. What is more, the original image and watermarking can be completely recovered by inverse process. Numerical experimental results and comparing with previous works show that the proposed scheme possesses higher security and embedding capacity than previous works. It is suitable for protecting the image information.
Lithium-ion battery remaining useful life prediction based on grey support vector machines
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaogang Li
2015-12-01
Full Text Available In this article, an improved grey prediction model is proposed to address low-accuracy prediction issue of grey forecasting model. The first step is using a trigonometric function to transform the original data sequence to smooth the data, which is called smoothness of grey prediction model, and then a grey support vector machine model by integrating the improved grey model with support vector machine is introduced. At the initial stage of the model, trigonometric functions and accumulation generation operation can be used to preprocess the data, which enhances the smoothness of the data and reduces the associated randomness. In addition, support vector machine is implemented to establish a prediction model for the pre-processed data and select the optimal model parameters via genetic algorithms. Finally, the data are restored through the ‘regressive generate’ operation to obtain the forecasting data. To prove that the grey support vector machine model is superior to the other models, the battery life data from the Center for Advanced Life Cycle Engineering are selected, and the presented model is used to predict the remaining useful life of the battery. The predicted result is compared to that of grey model and support vector machines. For a more intuitive comparison of the three models, this article quantifies the root mean square errors for these three different models in the case of different ratio of training samples and prediction samples. The results show that the effect of grey support vector machine model is optimal, and the corresponding root mean square error is only 3.18%.
Quasi-greedy systems of integer translates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Morten; Sikic, Hrvoje
We consider quasi-greedy systems of integer translates in a finitely generated shift invariant subspace of L2(Rd), that is systems for which the thresholding approximation procedure is well behaved. We prove that every quasi-greedy system of integer translates is also a Riesz basis for its closed...
Quasi-greedy systems of integer translates
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Morten; Sikic, Hrvoje
2008-01-01
We consider quasi-greedy systems of integer translates in a finitely generated shift-invariant subspace of L2(Rd), that is systems for which the thresholding approximation procedure is well behaved. We prove that every quasi-greedy system of integer translates is also a Riesz basis for its closed...
Using Integer Clocks to Verify the Timing-Sync Sensor Network Protocol
Huang, Xiaowan; Singh, Anu; Smolka, Scott A.
2010-01-01
We use the UPPAAL model checker for Timed Automata to verify the Timing-Sync time-synchronization protocol for sensor networks (TPSN). The TPSN protocol seeks to provide network-wide synchronization of the distributed clocks in a sensor network. Clock-synchronization algorithms for sensor networks such as TPSN must be able to perform arithmetic on clock values to calculate clock drift and network propagation delays. They must be able to read the value of a local clock and assign it to another local clock. Such operations are not directly supported by the theory of Timed Automata. To overcome this formal-modeling obstacle, we augment the UPPAAL specification language with the integer clock derived type. Integer clocks, which are essentially integer variables that are periodically incremented by a global pulse generator, greatly facilitate the encoding of the operations required to synchronize clocks as in the TPSN protocol. With this integer-clock-based model of TPSN in hand, we use UPPAAL to verify that the protocol achieves network-wide time synchronization and is devoid of deadlock. We also use the UPPAAL Tracer tool to illustrate how integer clocks can be used to capture clock drift and resynchronization during protocol execution
A quantum architecture for multiplying signed integers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alvarez-Sanchez, J J; Alvarez-Bravo, J V; Nieto, L M
2008-01-01
A new quantum architecture for multiplying signed integers is presented based on Booth's algorithm, which is well known in classical computation. It is shown how a quantum binary chain might be encoded by its flank changes, giving the final product in 2's-complement representation.
Solving the Water Jugs Problem by an Integer Sequence Approach
Man, Yiu-Kwong
2012-01-01
In this article, we present an integer sequence approach to solve the classic water jugs problem. The solution steps can be obtained easily by additions and subtractions only, which is suitable for manual calculation or programming by computer. This approach can be introduced to secondary and undergraduate students, and also to teachers and…
Mulyasari, Joni; Mawengkang, Herman; Efendi, Syahril
2018-02-01
In a distribution network it is important to decide the locations of facilities that impacts not only the profitability of an organization but the ability to serve customers.Generally the location-routing problem is to minimize the overall cost by simultaneously selecting a subset of candidate facilities and constructing a set of delivery routes that satisfy some restrictions. In this paper we impose restriction on the route that should be passed for delivery. We use integer programming model to describe the problem. A feasible neighbourhood search is proposed to solve the result model.
Grey Box Modelling of Hydrological Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thordarson, Fannar Ørn
of two papers where the stochastic differential equation based model is used for sewer runoff from a drainage system. A simple model is used to describe a complex rainfall-runoff process in a catchment, but the stochastic part of the system is formulated to include the increasing uncertainty when...... rainwater flows through the system, as well as describe the lower limit of the uncertainty when the flow approaches zero. The first paper demonstrates in detail the grey box model and all related transformations required to obtain a feasible model for the sewer runoff. In the last paper this model is used......The main topic of the thesis is grey box modelling of hydrologic systems, as well as formulation and assessment of their embedded uncertainties. Grey box model is a combination of a white box model, a physically-based model that is traditionally formulated using deterministic ordinary differential...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luis A. Rivera-Morales
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we propose a stochastic integer programming optimization model to determine the optimal location and number of rain water collectors (RWCs for forest firefighting. The objective is to minimize expected total cost to control forest fires. The model is tested using a real case and several additional realistic scenarios. The impact on the solution of varying the limit on the number of RWCs, the RWC water capacity, the aircraft capacity, the water demands, and the aircraft operating cost is explored. Some observations are that the objective value improves with larger RWCs and with the use of aircraft with greater capacity.
On the convex hull of the simple integer recourse objective function
Klein Haneveld, Willem K.; Stougie, L.; van der Vlerk, Maarten H.
1995-01-01
We consider the objective function of a simple integer recourse problem with fixed technology matrix. Using properties of the expected value function, we prove a relation between the convex hull of this function and the expected value function of a continuous simple recourse program. We present an
A Two-Stage Stochastic Mixed-Integer Programming Approach to the Smart House Scheduling Problem
Ozoe, Shunsuke; Tanaka, Yoichi; Fukushima, Masao
A “Smart House” is a highly energy-optimized house equipped with photovoltaic systems (PV systems), electric battery systems, fuel cell cogeneration systems (FC systems), electric vehicles (EVs) and so on. Smart houses are attracting much attention recently thanks to their enhanced ability to save energy by making full use of renewable energy and by achieving power grid stability despite an increased power draw for installed PV systems. Yet running a smart house's power system, with its multiple power sources and power storages, is no simple task. In this paper, we consider the problem of power scheduling for a smart house with a PV system, an FC system and an EV. We formulate the problem as a mixed integer programming problem, and then extend it to a stochastic programming problem involving recourse costs to cope with uncertain electricity demand, heat demand and PV power generation. Using our method, we seek to achieve the optimal power schedule running at the minimum expected operation cost. We present some results of numerical experiments with data on real-life demands and PV power generation to show the effectiveness of our method.
Personnel scheduling using an integer programming model- an application at Avanti Blue-Nile Hotels.
Kassa, Biniyam Asmare; Tizazu, Anteneh Eshetu
2013-01-01
In this paper, we report perhaps a first of its kind application of management science in the Ethiopian hotel industry. Avanti Blue Nile Hotels, a newly established five star hotel in Bahir Dar, is the company for which we developed an integer programming model that determines an optimal weekly shift schedule for the Hotel's engineering department personnel while satisfying several constraints including weekly rest requirements per employee, rest requirements between working shifts per employee, required number of personnel per shift, and other constraints. The model is implemented on an excel solver routine. The model enables the company's personnel department management to develop a fair personnel schedule as needed and to effectively utilize personnel resources while satisfying several technical, legal and economic requirements. These encouraging achievements make us optimistic about the gains other Ethiopian organizations can amass by introducing management science approaches in their management planning and decision making systems.
WORKFORCE SIZING AND SCHEDULING FOR A SERVICE CONTRACTOR USING INTEGER PROGRAMMING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D.G. Conradie
2012-01-01
Full Text Available
ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Operations Research is perceived to be on the verge of demise as a decision support tool in industry. However, this is not true, since the relevancy and interdisciplinary nature of Operations Research makes it an indispensable part of operations management. What should rather be asked is how Operations Research is introduced to undergraduate industrial engineering students. This paper reports on one of the optimisation initiatives undertaken for a service contractor using integer programming as part of a semester project. Although the model addresses specific business issues related to the contractor, it can easily be generalised for other applications.
AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Operasionele Navorsing word geag as ’n kwynende besluitnemingsinstrument in die nywerheid. Dit is egter onwaar, aangesien die toepaslikheid en interdissiplinêre karakter van Operasionele Navorsing dit ‘n onmisbare rol laat speel in operasionele bestuur. Die vraag wat eerder gevra moet word is hoe Operasionele Navorsing aan voorgraadse bedryfsingenieurswesestudente aangebied word. Hierdie artikel doen verslag oor een van die optimerings-inisiatiewe wat as deel van ‘n semesterprojek vir ‘n diensverskaffer uitgevoer is, en maak van heeltal-programmering gebruik. Alhoewel die model kontrakteur-spesifieke besigheidsreëls aanspreek, kan dit maklik veralgemeen word vir wyer toepassing.
Application of entropy measurement technique in grey based ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
For this study, four control variables are selected current, voltage, gas flow rate and ... Keywords: Metal Inert Gas (MIG) Welding, Grey-Taguchi Method, Entropy ...... of metal inert gas welding on the corrosion and mechanical behaviour of.
Integer Programming Formulation of the Problem of Generating Milton Babbitt's All-partition Arrays
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tanaka, Tsubasa; Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David
2016-01-01
Milton Babbitt (1916–2011) was a composer of twelve-tone serial music noted for creating the all-partition array. The problem of generating an all-partition array involves finding a rectangular array of pitch-class integers that can be partitioned into regions, each of which represents a distinct...
A bi-objective integer programming model for partly-restricted flight departure scheduling.
Zhong, Han; Guan, Wei; Zhang, Wenyi; Jiang, Shixiong; Fan, Lingling
2018-01-01
The normal studies on air traffic departure scheduling problem (DSP) mainly deal with an independent airport in which the departure traffic is not affected by surrounded airports, which, however, is not a consistent case. In reality, there still exist cases where several commercial airports are closely located and one of them possesses a higher priority. During the peak hours, the departure activities of the lower-priority airports are usually required to give way to those of higher-priority airport. These giving-way requirements can inflict a set of changes on the modeling of departure scheduling problem with respect to the lower-priority airports. To the best of our knowledge, studies on DSP under this condition are scarce. Accordingly, this paper develops a bi-objective integer programming model to address the flight departure scheduling of the partly-restricted (e.g., lower-priority) one among several adjacent airports. An adapted tabu search algorithm is designed to solve the current problem. It is demonstrated from the case study of Tianjin Binhai International Airport in China that the proposed method can obviously improve the operation efficiency, while still realizing superior equity and regularity among restricted flows.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Bo; Deng, Zhihong; Wang, Shunting; Fu, Mengyin
2010-01-01
Loss of the satellite signal and noise disturbance will cause cycle slips to occur in the carrier phase observation of the attitude determination system using the global positioning system (GPS), especially in the dynamic situation. Therefore, in order to reject the error by cycle slips, the integer ambiguity should be re-computed. A motion model-based Kalman predictor is used for the ambiguity re-computation in dynamic applications. This method utilizes the correct observation of the last step to predict the current ambiguities. With the baseline length as a constraint to reject invalid values, we can solve the current integer ambiguity and the attitude angles, by substituting the obtained ambiguities into the constrained LAMBDA method. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is more efficient in the dynamic situation, which takes less time to obtain new fixed ambiguities with a higher mean success rate
Landman, Bruce M
2003-01-01
Ramsey theory is the study of the structure of mathematical objects that is preserved under partitions. In its full generality, Ramsey theory is quite powerful, but can quickly become complicated. By limiting the focus of this book to Ramsey theory applied to the set of integers, the authors have produced a gentle, but meaningful, introduction to an important and enticing branch of modern mathematics. Ramsey Theory on the Integers offers students something quite rare for a book at this level: a glimpse into the world of mathematical research and the opportunity to begin pondering unsolved problems themselves. In addition to being the first truly accessible book on Ramsey theory, this innovative book also provides the first cohesive study of Ramsey theory on the integers. It contains perhaps the most substantial account of solved and unsolved problems in this blossoming subarea of Ramsey theory. The result is a breakthrough book that will engage students, teachers, and researchers alike.
Fractal electrodynamics via non-integer dimensional space approach
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2015-09-01
Using the recently suggested vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space, we consider electrodynamics problems in isotropic case. This calculus allows us to describe fractal media in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. We consider electric and magnetic fields of fractal media with charges and currents in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional spaces. An application of the fractal Gauss's law, the fractal Ampere's circuital law, the fractal Poisson equation for electric potential, and equation for fractal stream of charges are suggested. Lorentz invariance and speed of light in fractal electrodynamics are discussed. An expression for effective refractive index of non-integer dimensional space is suggested.
DESIGN STUDY: INTEGER SUBTRACTION OPERATION TEACHING LEARNING USING MULTIMEDIA IN PRIMARY SCHOOL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rendi Muhammad Aris
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This study aims to develop a learning trajectory to help students understand concept of subtraction of integers using multimedia in the fourth grade. This study is thematic integrative learning in Curriculum 2013 PMRI based. The method used is design research consists of three stages; preparing for the experiment, design experiment, retrospective analysis. The studied was conducted on 20 students of grade four SDN 1 Muara Batun, OKI. The activities of students in this study consisted of six learning trajectories. The first activity asks the students to classify heroism and non-heroism acts, summarize, and classify integers and non-integer. The second activity asks the students to answer the questions in the film given. The third activity asks students to count the remaining gravel in the film. The fourth activity asks students to count remaining spent money in the film. The fifth activity invites students to play rubber seeds in the bag. The last activity asks students to answer the questions in the student worksheet. The media used along the learning activities are a ruler, rubber seed, student worksheet, money, gravel, and film. The results indicate that the learning trajectory using multimedia help students understand the concept of integer subtraction integer. Keywords: Subtraction Integer, PMRI, Multimedia DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.8.1.3233.95-102
Limbic grey matter changes in early Parkinson's disease.
Li, Xingfeng; Xing, Yue; Schwarz, Stefan T; Auer, Dorothee P
2017-05-02
The purpose of this study was to investigate local and network-related changes of limbic grey matter in early Parkinson's disease (PD) and their inter-relation with non-motor symptom severity. We applied voxel-based morphometric methods in 538 T1 MRI images retrieved from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative website. Grey matter densities and cross-sectional estimates of age-related grey matter change were compared between subjects with early PD (n = 366) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 172) within a regression model, and associations of grey matter density with symptoms were investigated. Structural brain networks were obtained using covariance analysis seeded in regions showing grey matter abnormalities in PD subject group. Patients displayed focally reduced grey matter density in the right amygdala, which was present from the earliest stages of the disease without further advance in mild-moderate disease stages. Right amygdala grey matter density showed negative correlation with autonomic dysfunction and positive with cognitive performance in patients, but no significant interrelations were found with anxiety scores. Patients with PD also demonstrated right amygdala structural disconnection with less structural connectivity of the right amygdala with the cerebellum and thalamus but increased covariance with bilateral temporal cortices compared with controls. Age-related grey matter change was also increased in PD preferentially in the limbic system. In conclusion, detailed brain morphometry in a large group of early PD highlights predominant limbic grey matter deficits with stronger age associations compared with controls and associated altered structural connectivity pattern. This provides in vivo evidence for early limbic grey matter pathology and structural network changes that may reflect extranigral disease spread in PD. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 The
Application of grey theory in operator management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu Hong
2013-01-01
Scientific and reasonable operator management is the basis of nuclear safety. It is paid more attention after the three-mile island accident. The prediction of operators' basic behavior parameters is the premise and foundation of scientific and reasonable operator management. Grey theory happened to solve the dilemma encountered in prediction and decision-making of operator behavior in operator management of nuclear power plant. The procedure was divided into two steps: 1) According to the historical record of operators' behavior parameters, a differential equation model using grey theory was set up to predict the future behavior of operators; 2) operator management decision-making was made based on grey theory. The calculation result is not only helpful for operator management but also useful for operators to find their shortcomings. Grey theory used in the study provides a new idea and method for future operator management in nuclear power plant. (author)
Safikhani, Zhaleh; Sadeghi, Mehdi; Pezeshk, Hamid; Eslahchi, Changiz
2013-01-01
Recent advances in the sequencing technologies have provided a handful of RNA-seq datasets for transcriptome analysis. However, reconstruction of full-length isoforms and estimation of the expression level of transcripts with a low cost are challenging tasks. We propose a novel de novo method named SSP that incorporates interval integer linear programming to resolve alternatively spliced isoforms and reconstruct the whole transcriptome from short reads. Experimental results show that SSP is fast and precise in determining different alternatively spliced isoforms along with the estimation of reconstructed transcript abundances. The SSP software package is available at http://www.bioinf.cs.ipm.ir/software/ssp. © 2013.
Soil infiltration based on bp neural network and grey relational analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Juan
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Soil infiltration is a key link of the natural water cycle process. Studies on soil permeability are conducive for water resources assessment and estimation, runoff regulation and management, soil erosion modeling, nonpoint and point source pollution of farmland, among other aspects. The unequal influence of rainfall duration, rainfall intensity, antecedent soil moisture, vegetation cover, vegetation type, and slope gradient on soil cumulative infiltration was studied under simulated rainfall and different underlying surfaces. We established a six factor-model of soil cumulative infiltration by the improved back propagation (BP-based artificial neural network algorithm with a momentum term and self-adjusting learning rate. Compared to the multiple nonlinear regression method, the stability and accuracy of the improved BP algorithm was better. Based on the improved BP model, the sensitive index of these six factors on soil cumulative infiltration was investigated. Secondly, the grey relational analysis method was used to individually study grey correlations among these six factors and soil cumulative infiltration. The results of the two methods were very similar. Rainfall duration was the most influential factor, followed by vegetation cover, vegetation type, rainfall intensity and antecedent soil moisture. The effect of slope gradient on soil cumulative infiltration was not significant.
Flow Formulation-based Model for the Curriculum-based Course Timetabling Problem
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bagger, Niels-Christian Fink; Kristiansen, Simon; Sørensen, Matias
2015-01-01
problem. This decreases the number of integer variables signicantly and improves the performance compared to the basic formulation. It also shows competitiveness with other approaches based on mixed integer programming from the literature and improves the currently best known lower bound on one data...... instance in the benchmark data set from the second international timetabling competition.......In this work we will present a new mixed integer programming formulation for the curriculum-based course timetabling problem. We show that the model contains an underlying network model by dividing the problem into two models and then connecting the two models back into one model using a maximum ow...
Review of the technological approaches for grey water treatment and reuses.
Li, Fangyue; Wichmann, Knut; Otterpohl, Ralf
2009-05-15
Based on literature review, a non-potable urban grey water reuse standard is proposed and the treatment alternatives and reuse scheme for grey water reuses are evaluated according to grey water characteristics and the proposed standard. The literature review shows that all types of grey water have good biodegradability. The bathroom and the laundry grey water are deficient in both nitrogen and phosphors. The kitchen grey water has a balanced COD: N: P ratio. The review also reveals that physical processes alone are not sufficient to guarantee an adequate reduction of the organics, nutrients and surfactants. The chemical processes can efficiently remove the suspended solids, organic materials and surfactants in the low strength grey water. The combination of aerobic biological process with physical filtration and disinfection is considered to be the most economical and feasible solution for grey water recycling. The MBR appears to be a very attractive solution in collective urban residential buildings.
An integer programming formulation of the parsimonious loss of heterozygosity problem.
Catanzaro, Daniele; Labbé, Martine; Halldórsson, Bjarni V
2013-01-01
A loss of heterozygosity (LOH) event occurs when, by the laws of Mendelian inheritance, an individual should be heterozygote at a given site but, due to a deletion polymorphism, is not. Deletions play an important role in human disease and their detection could provide fundamental insights for the development of new diagnostics and treatments. In this paper, we investigate the parsimonious loss of heterozygosity problem (PLOHP), i.e., the problem of partitioning suspected polymorphisms from a set of individuals into a minimum number of deletion areas. Specifically, we generalize Halldórsson et al.'s work by providing a more general formulation of the PLOHP and by showing how one can incorporate different recombination rates and prior knowledge about the locations of deletions. Moreover, we show that the PLOHP can be formulated as a specific version of the clique partition problem in a particular class of graphs called undirected catch-point interval graphs and we prove its general $({\\cal NP})$-hardness. Finally, we provide a state-of-the-art integer programming (IP) formulation and strengthening valid inequalities to exactly solve real instances of the PLOHP containing up to 9,000 individuals and 3,000 SNPs. Our results give perspectives on the mathematics of the PLOHP and suggest new directions on the development of future efficient exact solution approaches.
Positive integer solutions of certain diophantine equations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
BIJAN KUMAR PATEL
2018-03-19
Mar 19, 2018 ... integer solutions. They also found all the positive integer solutions of the given equations in terms of Fibonacci and Lucas numbers. Another interesting number sequence which is closely related to the sequence of. Fibonacci numbers is the sequence of balancing numbers. In 1999, Behera et al. [1] intro-.
Aspect-object alignment with Integer Linear Programming in opinion mining.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanyan Zhao
Full Text Available Target extraction is an important task in opinion mining. In this task, a complete target consists of an aspect and its corresponding object. However, previous work has always simply regarded the aspect as the target itself and has ignored the important "object" element. Thus, these studies have addressed incomplete targets, which are of limited use for practical applications. This paper proposes a novel and important sentiment analysis task, termed aspect-object alignment, to solve the "object neglect" problem. The objective of this task is to obtain the correct corresponding object for each aspect. We design a two-step framework for this task. We first provide an aspect-object alignment classifier that incorporates three sets of features, namely, the basic, relational, and special target features. However, the objects that are assigned to aspects in a sentence often contradict each other and possess many complicated features that are difficult to incorporate into a classifier. To resolve these conflicts, we impose two types of constraints in the second step: intra-sentence constraints and inter-sentence constraints. These constraints are encoded as linear formulations, and Integer Linear Programming (ILP is used as an inference procedure to obtain a final global decision that is consistent with the constraints. Experiments on a corpus in the camera domain demonstrate that the three feature sets used in the aspect-object alignment classifier are effective in improving its performance. Moreover, the classifier with ILP inference performs better than the classifier without it, thereby illustrating that the two types of constraints that we impose are beneficial.
Aspect-object alignment with Integer Linear Programming in opinion mining.
Zhao, Yanyan; Qin, Bing; Liu, Ting; Yang, Wei
2015-01-01
Target extraction is an important task in opinion mining. In this task, a complete target consists of an aspect and its corresponding object. However, previous work has always simply regarded the aspect as the target itself and has ignored the important "object" element. Thus, these studies have addressed incomplete targets, which are of limited use for practical applications. This paper proposes a novel and important sentiment analysis task, termed aspect-object alignment, to solve the "object neglect" problem. The objective of this task is to obtain the correct corresponding object for each aspect. We design a two-step framework for this task. We first provide an aspect-object alignment classifier that incorporates three sets of features, namely, the basic, relational, and special target features. However, the objects that are assigned to aspects in a sentence often contradict each other and possess many complicated features that are difficult to incorporate into a classifier. To resolve these conflicts, we impose two types of constraints in the second step: intra-sentence constraints and inter-sentence constraints. These constraints are encoded as linear formulations, and Integer Linear Programming (ILP) is used as an inference procedure to obtain a final global decision that is consistent with the constraints. Experiments on a corpus in the camera domain demonstrate that the three feature sets used in the aspect-object alignment classifier are effective in improving its performance. Moreover, the classifier with ILP inference performs better than the classifier without it, thereby illustrating that the two types of constraints that we impose are beneficial.
Mixed-integer programming methods for transportation and power generation problems
Damci Kurt, Pelin
This dissertation conducts theoretical and computational research to solve challenging problems in application areas such as supply chain and power systems. The first part of the dissertation studies a transportation problem with market choice (TPMC) which is a variant of the classical transportation problem in which suppliers with limited capacities have a choice of which demands (markets) to satisfy. We show that TPMC is strongly NP-complete. We consider a version of the problem with a service level constraint on the maximum number of markets that can be rejected and show that if the original problem is polynomial, its cardinality-constrained version is also polynomial. We propose valid inequalities for mixed-integer cover and knapsack sets with variable upper bound constraints, which appear as substructures of TPMC and use them in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve this problem. The second part of this dissertation studies a unit commitment (UC) problem in which the goal is to minimize the operational cost of power generators over a time period subject to physical constraints while satisfying demand. We provide several exponential classes of multi-period ramping and multi-period variable upper bound inequalities. We prove the strength of these inequalities and describe polynomial-time separation algorithms. Computational results show the effectiveness of the proposed inequalities when used as cuts in a branch-and-cut algorithm to solve the UC problem. The last part of this dissertation investigates the effects of uncertain wind power on the UC problem. A two-stage robust model and a three-stage stochastic program are compared.
INTEG INSPEC, Accident Frequencies and Safety Analysis for Nuclear Power Plant
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnett, L.M.
1976-01-01
1 - Description of problem or function: These programs analyze the characteristics of a general model developed to represent the safety aspects of an operating nuclear reactor. These characteristics are the frequencies of incidents that are departures from the expected behavior of the reactor. Each incident is assumed to be preceded by a sequence of events starting at some initiating event. At each member in this sequence there may be functions such as safety circuits, and personnel operations that stop the sequence at that member. When mechanical devices fail they are assumed to remain inoperative until repaired. The model accounts for scheduled inspection and maintenance of all equipment in the system. 2 - Method of solution: In INTEG, the discontinuous density function is integrated by the trapezoidal rule from time equals zero to time equals t. INSPEC is based on the simulation of reactor operation as a Markov process. A vector of probabilities is successively multiplied by a transition matrix. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: INSPEC is limited to subsystems with no more than 7 safety circuits. The transition matrix can be made up as desired so that any intercorrelations between failures of circuits can be accommodated. In INTEG, failure rates of safety circuits are restricted to independence
A mixed-integer linear programming approach to the reduction of genome-scale metabolic networks.
Röhl, Annika; Bockmayr, Alexander
2017-01-03
Constraint-based analysis has become a widely used method to study metabolic networks. While some of the associated algorithms can be applied to genome-scale network reconstructions with several thousands of reactions, others are limited to small or medium-sized models. In 2015, Erdrich et al. introduced a method called NetworkReducer, which reduces large metabolic networks to smaller subnetworks, while preserving a set of biological requirements that can be specified by the user. Already in 2001, Burgard et al. developed a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) approach for computing minimal reaction sets under a given growth requirement. Here we present an MILP approach for computing minimum subnetworks with the given properties. The minimality (with respect to the number of active reactions) is not guaranteed by NetworkReducer, while the method by Burgard et al. does not allow specifying the different biological requirements. Our procedure is about 5-10 times faster than NetworkReducer and can enumerate all minimum subnetworks in case there exist several ones. This allows identifying common reactions that are present in all subnetworks, and reactions appearing in alternative pathways. Applying complex analysis methods to genome-scale metabolic networks is often not possible in practice. Thus it may become necessary to reduce the size of the network while keeping important functionalities. We propose a MILP solution to this problem. Compared to previous work, our approach is more efficient and allows computing not only one, but even all minimum subnetworks satisfying the required properties.
S-parts of terms of integer linear recurrence sequences
Bugeaud, Y.; Evertse, J.H.
2017-01-01
Let S = {q1 , . . . , qs } be a finite, non-empty set of distinct prime numbers. For a non-zero integer m, write m = q1^ r1 . . . qs^rs M, where r1 , . . . , rs are non-negative integers and M is an integer relatively prime to q1 . . . qs. We define the S-part [m]_S of m by [m]_S := q1^r1 . . .
El-Qulity, Said Ali; Mohamed, Ali Wagdy
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a nonlinear integer goal programming model (NIGPM) for solving the general problem of admission capacity planning in a country as a whole. The work aims to satisfy most of the required key objectives of a country related to the enrollment problem for higher education. The system general outlines are developed along with the solution methodology for application to the time horizon in a given plan. The up-to-date data for Saudi Arabia is used as a case study and a novel evolutionary algorithm based on modified differential evolution (DE) algorithm is used to solve the complexity of the NIGPM generated for different goal priorities. The experimental results presented in this paper show their effectiveness in solving the admission capacity for higher education in terms of final solution quality and robustness.
Fockedey, N.
2005-01-01
The present chapter aims to be a literature review on the brackish water mysid Neomysis integer, with focus on its feeding ecology, life history aspects, behaviour, physiology, biochemical composition, bioenergetics and ecotoxico10gy. All records on the species, available from literature, are listed as an appendix. The review aims to identify the state-of-the-art and the gaps in our knowledge on the species. Abundant information is available on the distribution patterns of Neomysis integer in...
Ryan, Jason C; Banerjee, Ashis Gopal; Cummings, Mary L; Roy, Nicholas
2014-06-01
Planning operations across a number of domains can be considered as resource allocation problems with timing constraints. An unexplored instance of such a problem domain is the aircraft carrier flight deck, where, in current operations, replanning is done without the aid of any computerized decision support. Rather, veteran operators employ a set of experience-based heuristics to quickly generate new operating schedules. These expert user heuristics are neither codified nor evaluated by the United States Navy; they have grown solely from the convergent experiences of supervisory staff. As unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) are introduced in the aircraft carrier domain, these heuristics may require alterations due to differing capabilities. The inclusion of UAVs also allows for new opportunities for on-line planning and control, providing an alternative to the current heuristic-based replanning methodology. To investigate these issues formally, we have developed a decision support system for flight deck operations that utilizes a conventional integer linear program-based planning algorithm. In this system, a human operator sets both the goals and constraints for the algorithm, which then returns a proposed schedule for operator approval. As a part of validating this system, the performance of this collaborative human-automation planner was compared with that of the expert user heuristics over a set of test scenarios. The resulting analysis shows that human heuristics often outperform the plans produced by an optimization algorithm, but are also often more conservative.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mbarek Elbounjimi
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Closed-loop supply chain network design is a critical issue due to its impact on both economic and environmental performances of the supply chain. In this paper, we address the problem of designing a multi-echelon, multi-product and capacitated closed-loop supply chain network. First, a mixed-integer linear programming formulation is developed to maximize the total profit. The main contribution of the proposed model is addressing two economic viability issues of closed-loop supply chain. The first issue is the collection of sufficient quantity of end-of-life products are assured by retailers against an acquisition price. The second issue is exploiting the benefits of colocation of forward facilities and reverse facilities. The presented model is solved by LINGO for some test problems. Computational results and sensitivity analysis are conducted to show the performance of the proposed model.
On grey levels in random CAPTCHA generation
Newton, Fraser; Kouritzin, Michael A.
2011-06-01
A CAPTCHA is an automatically generated test designed to distinguish between humans and computer programs; specifically, they are designed to be easy for humans but difficult for computer programs to pass in order to prevent the abuse of resources by automated bots. They are commonly seen guarding webmail registration forms, online auction sites, and preventing brute force attacks on passwords. In the following, we address the question: How does adding a grey level to random CAPTCHA generation affect the utility of the CAPTCHA? We treat the problem of generating the random CAPTCHA as one of random field simulation: An initial state of background noise is evolved over time using Gibbs sampling and an efficient algorithm for generating correlated random variables. This approach has already been found to yield highly-readable yet difficult-to-crack CAPTCHAs. We detail how the requisite parameters for introducing grey levels are estimated and how we generate the random CAPTCHA. The resulting CAPTCHA will be evaluated in terms of human readability as well as its resistance to automated attacks in the forms of character segmentation and optical character recognition.
Optimising the selection of food items for FFQs using Mixed Integer Linear Programming.
Gerdessen, Johanna C; Souverein, Olga W; van 't Veer, Pieter; de Vries, Jeanne Hm
2015-01-01
To support the selection of food items for FFQs in such a way that the amount of information on all relevant nutrients is maximised while the food list is as short as possible. Selection of the most informative food items to be included in FFQs was modelled as a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) model. The methodology was demonstrated for an FFQ with interest in energy, total protein, total fat, saturated fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, total carbohydrates, mono- and disaccharides, dietary fibre and potassium. The food lists generated by the MILP model have good performance in terms of length, coverage and R 2 (explained variance) of all nutrients. MILP-generated food lists were 32-40 % shorter than a benchmark food list, whereas their quality in terms of R 2 was similar to that of the benchmark. The results suggest that the MILP model makes the selection process faster, more standardised and transparent, and is especially helpful in coping with multiple nutrients. The complexity of the method does not increase with increasing number of nutrients. The generated food lists appear either shorter or provide more information than a food list generated without the MILP model.
Assessment of global grey water footprint of major food crops
Yang, Hong; Liu, Wenfeng; Antonelli, Marta
2016-04-01
Agricultural production is one of the major sources of water pollution in the world. This is closely related to the excess application of fertilizers. Leaching of N and P to water bodies has caused serious degradation of water quality in many places. With the persistent increase in the demand for agricultural products, agricultural intensification evident during the past decades will continue in the future. This will lead to further increase in fertilizer application and consequently water pollution. Grey water footprint is a measure of the intensity of water pollution caused by water use for human activities. It is defined as the volume of water that is required to assimilate a load of pollutants to a freshwater body, based on natural background concentrations and water quality standards. This study conducts a global assessment of grey water footprint for major cereal crops, wheat, maize and rice. A crop model, Python-based EPIC (PEPIT), is applied to quantify the leaching of N and P from the fertilizer application in the three crops on a global scale with 0.5 degree spatial resolution. The hotspots of leaching are identified. The results suggest that, based on the definition and method of grey water footprint proposed by the World Water Footprint Network, the grey water footprint in many parts of the world has exceeded their total water resources availability. This indicates the seriousness of water pollution caused by agricultural production. However, the situation may also call for the development of a realistic measurement of grey water footprint which is more pertinent to water resources management. This paper proposes some alternatives in measuring grey water footprint and also discusses incorporation of grey water footprint assessment into water policy formulation and river basins plan development.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J S Pasricha
1985-01-01
Full Text Available An improved method for evaluating the effect of treatment for premature grey hairs is described. The method consists of pulling out all the grey hairs in a patient and counting the number removed. Simultaneously, the converted hairs are also snipped at the grey-black junction and counted. After a gap of 3 months, the survey is repeated to count the number of hairs which have regrowing as grey hairs, the hairs which have become grey and also the hairs which have got converted into black during this period. Such surveys are repeated at 3 months intervals over a period of several years to see the progress of greying of hair in an individual and to evaluate the effect of various therapeutic procedures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikeda, Kiyoshi
2010-01-01
'Grey literature' is a loosely defined term whose application is rather complex, but it is also an important source of information for academic researchers. Today, the spread of the Internet has led to changes not only in the circulation but also in the role and definition of 'grey literature'. This article therefore presents a short history of the definition of 'grey literature', with central focus on topics discussed by the International Conference on Grey Literature. After this, the current status and future prospects of 'grey literature' in the digital society are described. Finally, the article introduces the JAEA Library's activities on 'grey literature', particularly the acquisition of proceedings and the editing and dissemination of the JAEA Reports (technical reports of JAEA). (author)
An Efficient Integer Coding and Computing Method for Multiscale Time Segment
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
TONG Xiaochong
2016-12-01
Full Text Available This article focus on the exist problem and status of current time segment coding, proposed a new set of approach about time segment coding: multi-scale time segment integer coding (MTSIC. This approach utilized the tree structure and the sort by size formed among integer, it reflected the relationship among the multi-scale time segments: order, include/contained, intersection, etc., and finally achieved an unity integer coding processing for multi-scale time. On this foundation, this research also studied the computing method for calculating the time relationships of MTSIC, to support an efficient calculation and query based on the time segment, and preliminary discussed the application method and prospect of MTSIC. The test indicated that, the implement of MTSIC is convenient and reliable, and the transformation between it and the traditional method is convenient, it has the very high efficiency in query and calculating.
Binary Positive Semidefinite Matrices and Associated Integer Polytopes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Letchford, Adam N.; Sørensen, Michael Malmros
2012-01-01
We consider the positive semidefinite (psd) matrices with binary entries, along with the corresponding integer polytopes. We begin by establishing some basic properties of these matrices and polytopes. Then, we show that several families of integer polytopes in the literature-the cut, boolean qua...
Analysis of aerobic granular sludge formation based on grey system theory.
Zhang, Cuiya; Zhang, Hanmin
2013-04-01
Based on grey entropy analysis, the relational grade of operational parameters with aerobic granular sludge's granulation indicators was studied. The former consisted of settling time (ST), aeration time (AT), superficial gas velocity (SGV), height/diameter (H/D) ratio and organic loading rates (OLR), the latter included sludge volume index (SVI) and set-up time. The calculated result showed that for SVI and set-up time, the influence orders and the corresponding grey entropy relational grades (GERG) were: SGV (0.9935) > AT (0.9921) > OLR (0.9894) > ST (0.9876) > H/D (0.9857) and SGV (0.9928) > H/D (0.9914) > AT (0.9909) > OLR (0.9897) > ST (0.9878). The chosen parameters were all key impact factors as each GERG was larger than 0.98. SGV played an important role in improving SVI transformation and facilitating the set-up process. The influence of ST on SVI and set-up time was relatively low due to its dual functions. SVI transformation and rapid set-up demanded different optimal H/D ratio scopes (10-20 and 16-20). Meanwhile, different functions could be obtained through adjusting certain factors' scope.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chenlu Miao
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Many leader-follower relationships exist in product family design engineering problems. We use bilevel programming (BLP to reflect the leader-follower relationship and describe such problems. Product family design problems have unique characteristics; thus, mixed integer nonlinear BLP (MINLBLP, which has both continuous and discrete variables and multiple independent lower-level problems, is widely used in product family optimization. However, BLP is difficult in theory and is an NP-hard problem. Consequently, using traditional methods to solve such problems is difficult. Genetic algorithms (GAs have great value in solving BLP problems, and many studies have designed GAs to solve BLP problems; however, such GAs are typically designed for special cases that do not involve MINLBLP with one or multiple followers. Therefore, we propose a bilevel GA to solve these particular MINLBLP problems, which are widely used in product family problems. We give numerical examples to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. In addition, a reducer family case study is examined to demonstrate practical applications of the proposed BLGA.
Subcortical grey matter changes in untreated, early stage Parkinson's disease without dementia.
Lee, Hye Mi; Kwon, Kyum-Yil; Kim, Min-Jik; Jang, Ji-Wan; Suh, Sang-Il; Koh, Seong-Beom; Kim, Ji Hyun
2014-06-01
Previous MRI studies have investigated cortical or subcortical grey matter changes in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), yielding inconsistent findings between the studies. We therefore sought to determine whether focal cortical or subcortical grey matter changes may be present from the early disease stage. We recruited 49 untreated, early stage PD patients without dementia and 53 control subjects. Voxel-based morphometry was used to evaluate cortical grey matter changes, and automated volumetry and shape analysis were used to assess volume changes and shape deformation of the subcortical grey matter structures, respectively. Voxel-based morphometry showed neither reductions nor increases in grey matter volume in patients compared to controls. Compared to controls, PD patients had significant reductions in adjusted volumes of putamen, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus (corrected p grey matter and clinical variables representing disease duration and severity. Our results suggest that untreated, early stage PD without dementia is associated with volume reduction and shape deformation of subcortical grey matter, but not with cortical grey matter reduction. Our findings of structural changes in the posterolateral putamen and ventromedial putamen/nucleus accumbens could provide neuroanatomical basis for the involvement of motor and limbic striatum, further implicating motor and non-motor symptoms in PD, respectively. Early hippocampal involvement might be related to the risk for developing dementia in PD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiahang Yuan
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In consideration of the interaction among attributes and the influence of decision makers’ risk attitude, this paper proposes an intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy aggregation operator based on Choquet integral and prospect theory. With respect to a multiattribute group decision-making problem, the prospect value functions of intuitionistic trapezoidal fuzzy numbers are aggregated by the proposed operator; then a grey relation-projection pursuit dynamic cluster method is developed to obtain the ranking of alternatives; the firefly algorithm is used to optimize the objective function of projection for obtaining the best projection direction of grey correlation projection values, and the grey correlation projection values are evaluated, which are applied to classify, rank, and prefer the alternatives. Finally, an illustrative example is taken in the present study to make the proposed method comprehensible.
Ghunmi, Lina Abu; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B
2011-02-01
Knowing the biodegradability characteristics of grey water constituents is imperative for a proper design and operation of a biological treatment system of grey water. This study characterizes the different COD fractions of dormitory grey water and investigates the effect of applying different conditions in the biodegradation test. The maximum aerobic and anaerobic biodegradability and conversion rate for the different COD fractions is determined. The results show that, on average, dormitory grey water COD fractions are 28% suspended, 32% colloidal and 40% dissolved. The studied factors incubation time, inoculum addition and temperature are influencing the determined biodegradability. The maximum biodegradability and biodegradation rate differ between different COD fractions, viz. COD(ss), COD(col) and COD(diss). The dissolved COD fraction is characterised by the lowest degradation rate, both for anaerobic and aerobic conditions. The maximum biodegradability for aerobic and anaerobic conditions is 86 and 70% respectively, whereas the first order conversion rate constant, k₂₀, is 0.119 and 0.005 day⁻¹, respectively. The anaerobic and aerobic conversion rates in relation to temperature can be described by the Arrhenius relation, with temperature coefficients of 1.069 and 1.099, respectively.
Peering through the Review Process: Towards Transparency in Grey Literature
Farace, Dominic
2010-01-01
Now that grey literature is readily catalogued, referenced, cited, and openly accessible to subject based communities as well as net users, the claims that grey literature is unpublished or non-published have sufficiently been put to rest. However, now that grey literature has met these former challenges and entered mainstream publishing, it requires in the spirit of science to have a system in place for the quality control of its content. This new challenge has recently been spurred by the I...
Landman, Bruce
2014-01-01
""Integers"" is a refereed online journal devoted to research in the area of combinatorial number theory. It publishes original research articles in combinatorics and number theory. This work presents all papers of the 2013 volume in book form.
A General Approach for Orthogonal 4-Tap Integer Multiwavelet Transforms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mingli Jing
2010-01-01
Full Text Available An algorithm for orthogonal 4-tap integer multiwavelet transforms is proposed. We compute the singular value decomposition (SVD of block recursive matrices of transform matrix, and then transform matrix can be rewritten in a product of two block diagonal matrices and a permutation matrix. Furthermore, we factorize the block matrix of block diagonal matrices into triangular elementary reversible matrices (TERMs, which map integers to integers by rounding arithmetic. The cost of factorizing block matrix into TERMs does not increase with the increase of the dimension of transform matrix, and the proposed algorithm is in-place calculation and without allocating auxiliary memory. Examples of integer multiwavelet transform using DGHM and CL are given, which verify that the proposed algorithm is an executable algorithm and outperforms the existing algorithm for orthogonal 4-tap integer multiwavelet transform.
Yu, Xuefei; Lin, Liangzhuo; Shen, Jie; Chen, Zhi; Jian, Jun; Li, Bin; Xin, Sherman Xuegang
2018-01-01
The mean amplitude of glycemic excursions (MAGE) is an essential index for glycemic variability assessment, which is treated as a key reference for blood glucose controlling at clinic. However, the traditional "ruler and pencil" manual method for the calculation of MAGE is time-consuming and prone to error due to the huge data size, making the development of robust computer-aided program an urgent requirement. Although several software products are available instead of manual calculation, poor agreement among them is reported. Therefore, more studies are required in this field. In this paper, we developed a mathematical algorithm based on integer nonlinear programming. Following the proposed mathematical method, an open-code computer program named MAGECAA v1.0 was developed and validated. The results of the statistical analysis indicated that the developed program was robust compared to the manual method. The agreement among the developed program and currently available popular software is satisfied, indicating that the worry about the disagreement among different software products is not necessary. The open-code programmable algorithm is an extra resource for those peers who are interested in the related study on methodology in the future.
Spreading Sequences Generated Using Asymmetrical Integer-Number Maps
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V. Sebesta
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Chaotic sequences produced by piecewise linear maps can be transformed to binary sequences. The binary sequences are optimal for the asynchronous DS/CDMA systems in case of certain shapes of the maps. This paper is devoted to the one-to-one integer-number maps derived from the suitable asymmetrical piecewise linear maps. Such maps give periodic integer-number sequences, which can be transformed to the binary sequences. The binary sequences produced via proposed modified integer-number maps are perfectly balanced and embody good autocorrelation and crosscorrelation properties. The number of different binary sequences is sizable. The sequences are suitable as spreading sequences in DS/CDMA systems.
Optimisation of wire-cut EDM process parameter by Grey-based response surface methodology
Kumar, Amit; Soota, Tarun; Kumar, Jitendra
2018-03-01
Wire electric discharge machining (WEDM) is one of the advanced machining processes. Response surface methodology coupled with Grey relation analysis method has been proposed and used to optimise the machining parameters of WEDM. A face centred cubic design is used for conducting experiments on high speed steel (HSS) M2 grade workpiece material. The regression model of significant factors such as pulse-on time, pulse-off time, peak current, and wire feed is considered for optimising the responses variables material removal rate (MRR), surface roughness and Kerf width. The optimal condition of the machining parameter was obtained using the Grey relation grade. ANOVA is applied to determine significance of the input parameters for optimising the Grey relation grade.
van den Akker, R.
2007-01-01
This thesis adresses statistical problems in econometrics. The first part contributes statistical methodology for nonnegative integer-valued time series. The second part of this thesis discusses semiparametric estimation in copula models and develops semiparametric lower bounds for a large class of
Early grey matter changes in structural covariance networks in Huntington's disease.
Coppen, Emma M; van der Grond, Jeroen; Hafkemeijer, Anne; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Roos, Raymund A C
2016-01-01
Progressive subcortical changes are known to occur in Huntington's disease (HD), a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. Less is known about the occurrence and cohesion of whole brain grey matter changes in HD. We aimed to detect network integrity changes in grey matter structural covariance networks and examined relationships with clinical assessments. Structural magnetic resonance imaging data of premanifest HD ( n = 30), HD patients (n = 30) and controls (n = 30) was used to identify ten structural covariance networks based on a novel technique using the co-variation of grey matter with independent component analysis in FSL. Group differences were studied controlling for age and gender. To explore whether our approach is effective in examining grey matter changes, regional voxel-based analysis was additionally performed. Premanifest HD and HD patients showed decreased network integrity in two networks compared to controls. One network included the caudate nucleus, precuneous and anterior cingulate cortex (in HD p covariance might be a sensitive approach to reveal early grey matter changes, especially for premanifest HD.
Characteristics of grey wastewater
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eriksson, Eva; Auffarth, Karina Pipaluk Solvejg; Henze, Mogens
2002-01-01
The composition of grey wastewater depends on sources and installations from where the water is drawn, e.g. kitchen, bathroom or laundry. The chemical compounds present originate from household chemicals, cooking, washing and the piping. In general grey wastewater contains lower levels of organic...
Grey literature in library and information studies
Schopfel, Joachim
2010-01-01
The further rise of electronic publishing has come to change the scale and diversity of grey literature facing librarians and other information practitioners. This compiled work brings together research and authorship over the past decade dealing with both the supply and demand sides of grey literature. While this book is written with students and instructors of Colleges and Schools of Library and Information Science in mind, it likewise serves as a reader for information professionals working in any and all like knowledge-based communities
Quantum recurrence and integer ratios in neutron resonances
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohkubo, Makio
1998-03-01
Quantum recurrence of the compound nucleus in neutron resonance reactions are described for normal modes which are excited on the compound nucleus simultaneously. In the structure of the recurrence time, integer relations among dominant level spacings are derived. The `base modes` are assumed as stable combinations of the normal modes, preferably excited in many nuclei. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baofeng Cai
2017-08-01
Full Text Available The Interconnected River System Network Project (IRSNP is a significant water supply engineering project, which is capable of effectively utilizing flood resources to generate ecological value, by connecting 198 lakes and ponds in western Jilin, northeast China. In this article, an optimization research approach has been proposed to maximize the incremental value of IRSNP ecosystem services. A double-sided chance-constrained integer linear program (DCCILP method has been proposed to support the optimization, which can deal with uncertainties presented as integers or random parameters that appear on both sides of the decision variable at the same time. The optimal scheme indicates that after rational optimization, the total incremental value of ecosystem services from the interconnected river system network project increased 22.25%, providing an increase in benefits of 3.26 × 109 ¥ compared to the original scheme. Most of the functional area is swamp wetland, which provides the greatest ecological benefits. Adjustment services increased obviously, implying that the optimization scheme prioritizes ecological benefits rather than supply and production services.
Anisotropic fractal media by vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tarasov, Vasily E., E-mail: tarasov@theory.sinp.msu.ru [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation)
2014-08-15
A review of different approaches to describe anisotropic fractal media is proposed. In this paper, differentiation and integration non-integer dimensional and multi-fractional spaces are considered as tools to describe anisotropic fractal materials and media. We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space by using a product measure method. The product of fractional and non-integer dimensional spaces allows us to take into account the anisotropy of the fractal media in the framework of continuum models. The integration over non-integer-dimensional spaces is considered. In this paper differential operators of first and second orders for fractional space and non-integer dimensional space are suggested. The differential operators are defined as inverse operations to integration in spaces with non-integer dimensions. Non-integer dimensional space that is product of spaces with different dimensions allows us to give continuum models for anisotropic type of the media. The Poisson's equation for fractal medium, the Euler-Bernoulli fractal beam, and the Timoshenko beam equations for fractal material are considered as examples of application of suggested generalization of vector calculus for anisotropic fractal materials and media.
Anisotropic fractal media by vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2014-08-01
A review of different approaches to describe anisotropic fractal media is proposed. In this paper, differentiation and integration non-integer dimensional and multi-fractional spaces are considered as tools to describe anisotropic fractal materials and media. We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space by using a product measure method. The product of fractional and non-integer dimensional spaces allows us to take into account the anisotropy of the fractal media in the framework of continuum models. The integration over non-integer-dimensional spaces is considered. In this paper differential operators of first and second orders for fractional space and non-integer dimensional space are suggested. The differential operators are defined as inverse operations to integration in spaces with non-integer dimensions. Non-integer dimensional space that is product of spaces with different dimensions allows us to give continuum models for anisotropic type of the media. The Poisson's equation for fractal medium, the Euler-Bernoulli fractal beam, and the Timoshenko beam equations for fractal material are considered as examples of application of suggested generalization of vector calculus for anisotropic fractal materials and media.
Anisotropic fractal media by vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2014-01-01
A review of different approaches to describe anisotropic fractal media is proposed. In this paper, differentiation and integration non-integer dimensional and multi-fractional spaces are considered as tools to describe anisotropic fractal materials and media. We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for non-integer dimensional space by using a product measure method. The product of fractional and non-integer dimensional spaces allows us to take into account the anisotropy of the fractal media in the framework of continuum models. The integration over non-integer-dimensional spaces is considered. In this paper differential operators of first and second orders for fractional space and non-integer dimensional space are suggested. The differential operators are defined as inverse operations to integration in spaces with non-integer dimensions. Non-integer dimensional space that is product of spaces with different dimensions allows us to give continuum models for anisotropic type of the media. The Poisson's equation for fractal medium, the Euler-Bernoulli fractal beam, and the Timoshenko beam equations for fractal material are considered as examples of application of suggested generalization of vector calculus for anisotropic fractal materials and media
Rethinking the Role of Grey Literature in the Fourth Industrial Revolution
Savić, Dobrica
2017-01-01
This paper examines the potential impact of the emerging Fourth Industrial Revolution on grey literature and the challenges it will bring to the information management profession. Based on analysis of the most prevalent current trends and developments, it appears we will need to rethink the defi nition of grey literature, its creation and types, processing, storage, sustainability and usability. Information professionals, including the grey literature ones, will require training and new knowl...
Relationship between grey matter integrity and executive abilities in aging.
Manard, Marine; Bahri, Mohamed Ali; Salmon, Eric; Collette, Fabienne
2016-07-01
This cross-sectional study was designed to investigate grey matter changes that occur in healthy aging and the relationship between grey matter characteristics and executive functioning. Thirty-six young adults (18-30 years old) and 43 seniors (60-75 years old) were included. A general executive score was derived from a large battery of neuropsychological tests assessing three major aspects of executive functioning (inhibition, updating and shifting). Age-related grey matter changes were investigated by comparing young and older adults using voxel-based morphometry and voxel-based cortical thickness methods. A widespread difference in grey matter volume was found across many brain regions, whereas cortical thinning was mainly restricted to central areas. Multivariate analyses showed age-related changes in relatively similar brain regions to the respective univariate analyses but appeared more limited. Finally, in the older adult sample, a significant relationship between global executive performance and decreased grey matter volume in anterior (i.e. frontal, insular and cingulate cortex) but also some posterior brain areas (i.e. temporal and parietal cortices) as well as subcortical structures was observed. Results of this study highlight the distribution of age-related effects on grey matter volume and show that cortical atrophy does not appear primarily in "frontal" brain regions. From a cognitive viewpoint, age-related executive functioning seems to be related to grey matter volume but not to cortical thickness. Therefore, our results also highlight the influence of methodological aspects (from preprocessing to statistical analysis) on the pattern of results, which could explain the lack of consensus in literature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Yin, Sisi; Nishi, Tatsushi
2014-11-01
Quantity discount policy is decision-making for trade-off prices between suppliers and manufacturers while production is changeable due to demand fluctuations in a real market. In this paper, quantity discount models which consider selection of contract suppliers, production quantity and inventory simultaneously are addressed. The supply chain planning problem with quantity discounts under demand uncertainty is formulated as a mixed-integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP) with integral terms. We apply an outer-approximation method to solve MINLP problems. In order to improve the efficiency of the proposed method, the problem is reformulated as a stochastic model replacing the integral terms by using a normalisation technique. We present numerical examples to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed method.
Inverse grey-box model-based control of a dielectric elastomer actuator
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jones, Richard William; Sarban, Rahimullah
2012-01-01
control performance across the operating range of the DE actuator, a gain scheduling term, which linearizes the operating characteristics of the tubular dielectric elastomer actuator, is developed and implemented in series with the IMC controller. The IMC-based approach is investigated for servo control......An accurate physical-based electromechanical model of a commercially available tubular dielectric elastomer (DE) actuator has been developed and validated. In this contribution, the use of the physical-based electromechanical model to formulate a model-based controller is examined. The choice...... of control scheme was dictated by the desire for transparency in both controller design and operation. The internal model control (IMC) approach was chosen. In this particular application, the inverse of the linearized form of the grey-box model is used to formulate the IMC controller. To ensure consistent...
Nazri, Engku Muhammad; Yusof, Nur Ai'Syah; Ahmad, Norazura; Shariffuddin, Mohd Dino Khairri; Khan, Shazida Jan Mohd
2017-11-01
Prioritizing and making decisions on what student activities to be selected and conducted to fulfill the aspiration of a university as translated in its strategic plan must be executed with transparency and accountability. It is becoming even more crucial, particularly for universities in Malaysia with the recent budget cut imposed by the Malaysian government. In this paper, we illustrated how 0-1 integer programming (0-1 IP) model was implemented to select which activities among the forty activities proposed by the student body of Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) to be implemented for the 2017/2018 academic year. Two different models were constructed. The first model was developed to determine the minimum total budget that should be given to the student body by the UUM management to conduct all the activities that can fulfill the minimum targeted number of activities as stated in its strategic plan. On the other hand, the second model was developed to determine which activities to be selected based on the total budget already allocated beforehand by the UUM management towards fulfilling the requirements as set in its strategic plan. The selection of activities for the second model, was also based on the preference of the members of the student body whereby the preference value for each activity was determined using Compromised-Analytical Hierarchy Process. The outputs from both models were compared and discussed. The technique used in this study will be useful and suitable to be implemented by organizations with key performance indicator-oriented programs and having limited budget allocation issues.
Bioflocculation of grey water for improved energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts.
Hernández Leal, L; Temmink, H; Zeeman, G; Buisman, C J N
2010-12-01
Bioflocculation of grey water was tested with a lab-scale membrane bioreactor in order to concentrate the COD. Three concentration factors were tested based on the ratio of sludge retention time (SRT) and hydraulic retention time (HRT): 3, 8 and 12. COD concentration factor was up to 7.1, achieving a final concentration of 7.2 g COD L(-1). Large fractions of suspended COD were recovered in the concentrate (57%, 81% and 82% at SRT/HRT ratios of 3, 8 and 12, respectively) indicating a strong bioflocculation of grey water. A maximum of 11% of COD mineralization of grey water was measured at the longest SRT tested (1 d). The integration of bioflocculation of grey water in decentralized sanitation concepts may increase the overall production of methane by 73%, based on the biogas produced by black water only. Therefore, bioflocculation is a promising grey water pre-treatment step for energy recovery within decentralized sanitation concepts. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grey water treatment systems: A review
Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.
2011-01-01
This review aims to discern a treatment for grey water by examining grey water characteristics, reuse standards, technology performance and costs. The review reveals that the systems for treating grey water, whatever its quality, should consist of processes that are able to trap pollutants with a
Prediction of lithium-ion battery capacity with metabolic grey model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Lin; Lin, Weilong; Li, Junzi; Tian, Binbin; Pan, Haihong
2016-01-01
Given the popularity of Lithium-ion batteries in EVs (electric vehicles), predicting the capacity quickly and accurately throughout a battery's full life-time is still a challenging issue for ensuring the reliability of EVs. This paper proposes an approach in predicting the varied capacity with discharge cycles based on metabolic grey theory and consider issues from two perspectives: 1) three metabolic grey models will be presented, including MGM (metabolic grey model), MREGM (metabolic Residual-error grey model), and MMREGM (metabolic Markov-residual-error grey model); 2) the universality of these models will be explored under different conditions (such as various discharge rates and temperatures). Furthermore, the research findings in this paper demonstrate the excellent performance of the prediction depending on the three models; however, the precision of the MREGM model is inferior compared to the others. Therefore, we have obtained the conclusion in which the MGM model and the MMREGM model have excellent performances in predicting the capacity under a variety of load conditions, even using few data points for modeling. Also, the universality of the metabolic grey prediction theory is verified by predicting the capacity of batteries under different discharge rates and different temperatures. - Highlights: • The metabolic mechanism is introduced in a grey system for capacity prediction. • Three metabolic grey models are presented and studied. • The universality of these models under different conditions is assessed. • A few data points are required for predicting the capacity with these models.
Efficient Algorithms for gcd and Cubic Residuosity in the Ring of Eisenstein Integers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Damgård, Ivan Bjerre; Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg
2003-01-01
We present simple and efficient algorithms for computing gcd and cubic residuosity in the ring of Eisenstein integers, bf Z[ ]i.e. the integers extended with , a complex primitive third root of unity. The algorithms are similar and may be seen as generalisations of the binary integer gcd and deri......We present simple and efficient algorithms for computing gcd and cubic residuosity in the ring of Eisenstein integers, bf Z[ ]i.e. the integers extended with , a complex primitive third root of unity. The algorithms are similar and may be seen as generalisations of the binary integer gcd...
Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.
2008-01-01
When-issued trading concerns transactions in securities that have not yet been issued. This type of trade often takes place in a so-called 'grey market', in which all contracts are conditional on the issuance of the security. In this paper, we investigate the Dutch grey market for when-issued shares
State-of-the-evidence reviews: advantages and challenges of including grey literature.
Benzies, Karen M; Premji, Shahirose; Hayden, K Alix; Serrett, Karen
2006-01-01
Increasingly, health policy decision-makers and professionals are turning to research-based evidence to support decisions about policy and practice. Systematic reviews are useful for gathering, summarizing, and synthesizing published and unpublished research about clearly defined interventions. State-of-the-evidence reviews are broader than traditional systematic reviews and may include not only published and unpublished research, but also published and unpublished non-research literature. Decisions about whether to include this "grey literature" in a review are challenging and lead to many questions about whether the advantages outweigh the challenges. The primary purpose of this article is to describe what constitutes grey literature, and methods to locate it and assess its quality. The secondary purpose is to discuss the core issues to consider when making decisions to include grey literature in a state-of-the-evidence review. A recent state-of-the-evidence review is used as an exemplar to present advantages and challenges related to including grey literature in a review. Despite the challenges, in the exemplar, inclusion of grey literature was useful to validate the results of a research-based literature search. Decisions about whether to include grey literature in a state-of-the-evidence review are complex. A checklist to assist in decision-making was created as a tool to assist the researcher in determining whether it is advantageous to include grey literature in a review.
Spinor Field Realizations of the half-integer $W_{2,s}$ Strings
Wei, Shao-Wen; Liu, Yu-Xiao; Zhang, Li-Jie; Ren, Ji-Rong
2008-01-01
The grading Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) method gives a way to construct the integer $W_{2,s}$ strings, where the BRST charge is written as $Q_B=Q_0+Q_1$. Using this method, we reconstruct the nilpotent BRST charges $Q_{0}$ for the integer $W_{2,s}$ strings and the half-integer $W_{2,s}$ strings. Then we construct the exact grading BRST charge with spinor fields and give the new realizations of the half-integer $W_{2,s}$ strings for the cases of $s=3/2$, 5/2, and 7/2.
Joint shape segmentation with linear programming
Huang, Qixing
2011-01-01
We present an approach to segmenting shapes in a heterogenous shape database. Our approach segments the shapes jointly, utilizing features from multiple shapes to improve the segmentation of each. The approach is entirely unsupervised and is based on an integer quadratic programming formulation of the joint segmentation problem. The program optimizes over possible segmentations of individual shapes as well as over possible correspondences between segments from multiple shapes. The integer quadratic program is solved via a linear programming relaxation, using a block coordinate descent procedure that makes the optimization feasible for large databases. We evaluate the presented approach on the Princeton segmentation benchmark and show that joint shape segmentation significantly outperforms single-shape segmentation techniques. © 2011 ACM.
A multiple objective mixed integer linear programming model for power generation expansion planning
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Antunes, C. Henggeler; Martins, A. Gomes [INESC-Coimbra, Coimbra (Portugal); Universidade de Coimbra, Dept. de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Coimbra (Portugal); Brito, Isabel Sofia [Instituto Politecnico de Beja, Escola Superior de Tecnologia e Gestao, Beja (Portugal)
2004-03-01
Power generation expansion planning inherently involves multiple, conflicting and incommensurate objectives. Therefore, mathematical models become more realistic if distinct evaluation aspects, such as cost and environmental concerns, are explicitly considered as objective functions rather than being encompassed by a single economic indicator. With the aid of multiple objective models, decision makers may grasp the conflicting nature and the trade-offs among the different objectives in order to select satisfactory compromise solutions. This paper presents a multiple objective mixed integer linear programming model for power generation expansion planning that allows the consideration of modular expansion capacity values of supply-side options. This characteristic of the model avoids the well-known problem associated with continuous capacity values that usually have to be discretized in a post-processing phase without feedback on the nature and importance of the changes in the attributes of the obtained solutions. Demand-side management (DSM) is also considered an option in the planning process, assuming there is a sufficiently large portion of the market under franchise conditions. As DSM full costs are accounted in the model, including lost revenues, it is possible to perform an evaluation of the rate impact in order to further inform the decision process (Author)
Renneboog, L.D.R.; Spaenjers, C.
2008-01-01
When-issued trading concerns transactions in securities that have not yet been issued. This type of trade often takes place in a so-called ‘grey market’, in which all contracts are conditional on the issuance of the security. In this paper, we investigate the Dutch grey market for when-issued shares
Brain grey matter volume alterations in late-life depression.
Du, Mingying; Liu, Jia; Chen, Ziqi; Huang, Xiaoqi; Li, Jing; Kuang, Weihong; Yang, Yanchun; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Dong; Bi, Feng; Kendrick, Keith M; Gong, Qiyong
2014-11-01
Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies have demonstrated that grey matter abnormalities are involved in the pathophysiology of late-life depression (LLD), but the findings are inconsistent and have not been quantitatively reviewed. The aim of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis that integrated the reported VBM studies, to determine consistent grey matter alterations in individuals with LLD. A systematic search was conducted to identify VBM studies that compared patients with LLD and healthy controls. We performed a meta-analysis using the effect size signed differential mapping method to quantitatively estimate regional grey matter abnormalities in patients with LLD. We included 9 studies with 11 data sets comprising 292 patients with LLD and 278 healthy controls in our meta-analysis. The pooled and subgroup meta-analyses showed robust grey matter reductions in the right lentiform nucleus extending into the parahippocampus, the hippocampus and the amygdala, the bilateral medial frontal gyrus and the right subcallosal gyrus as well as a grey matter increase in the right lingual gyrus. Meta-regression analyses showed that mean age and the percentage of female patients with LLD were not significantly related to grey matter changes. The analysis techniques, patient characteristics and clinical variables of the studies included were heterogeneous, and most participants were medicated. The present meta-analysis is, to our knowledge, the first to overcome previous inconsistencies in the VBM studies of LLD and provide robust evidence for grey matter alterations within fronto-striatal-limbic networks, thereby implicating them in the pathophysiology of LLD. The mean age and the percentage of female patients with LLD did not appear to have a measurable impact on grey matter changes, although we cannot rule out the contributory effects of medication.
GreyGuide - Guide to Good Practice in Grey Literature: A Community Driven Open Resource Project
Biagioni, Stefania (ISTI-CNR); Carlesi, Carlo (ISTI-CNR); Schopfel, Joachim (University of Lille); Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service
2014-01-01
The goal of this project is to develop an open source repository of good practices in the field of grey literature. That which originated in monographic form will now open and expand to include content from the global grey literature community. Such practices will range from the production and processing of grey literature through to its distribution, uses, and preservation. The repository will contain guidelines such as those in handling theses and dissertations, how to write research report...
Research on wind field algorithm of wind lidar based on BP neural network and grey prediction
Chen, Yong; Chen, Chun-Li; Luo, Xiong; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Ze-hou; Zhou, Jie; Shi, Xiao-ding; Wang, Lei
2018-01-01
This paper uses the BP neural network and grey algorithm to forecast and study radar wind field. In order to reduce the residual error in the wind field prediction which uses BP neural network and grey algorithm, calculating the minimum value of residual error function, adopting the residuals of the gray algorithm trained by BP neural network, using the trained network model to forecast the residual sequence, using the predicted residual error sequence to modify the forecast sequence of the grey algorithm. The test data show that using the grey algorithm modified by BP neural network can effectively reduce the residual value and improve the prediction precision.
Improving an Integer Linear Programming Model of an Ecovat Buffer by Adding Long-Term Planning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gijs J. H. de Goeijen
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The Ecovat is a seasonal thermal storage solution consisting of a large underground water tank divided into a number of virtual segments that can be individually charged and discharged. The goal of the Ecovat is to supply heat demand to a neighborhood throughout the entire year. In this work, we extend an integer linear programming model to describe the charging and discharging of such an Ecovat buffer by adding a long-term (yearly planning step to the model. We compare the results from the model using this extension to previously obtained results and show significant improvements when looking at the combination of costs and the energy content of the buffer at the end of the optimization. Furthermore, we show that the model is very robust against prediction errors. For this, we compare two different cases: one case in which we assume perfect predictions are available and one case in which we assume no predictions are available. The largest observed difference in costs between these two cases is less than 2%.
Prediction on corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system based on optimized grey theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Yonghong; Zhang Dafa; Chen Dengke; Jiang Wei
2007-01-01
For the prediction of corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system, the pre- diction error from the grey theory is greater, so a new method, optimized grey theory was presented in the paper. A comparison among predicted results from present and other methods was carried out, and it is seem that optimized grey theory is correct and effective for the prediction of corrosion rate of pipe in nuclear power system, and it provides a fundamental basis for the maintenance of pipe in nuclear power system. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shailesh Dewangan
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Surface integrity remains one of the major areas of concern in electric discharge machining (EDM. During the current study, grey-fuzzy logic-based hybrid optimization technique is utilized to determine the optimal settings of EDM process parameters with an aim to improve surface integrity aspects after EDM of AISI P20 tool steel. The experiment is designed using response surface methodology (RSM considering discharge current (Ip, pulse-on time (Ton, tool-work time (Tw and tool-lift time (Tup as process parameters. Various surface integrity characteristics such as white layer thickness (WLT, surface crack density (SCD and surface roughness (SR are considered during the current research work. Grey relational analysis (GRA combined with fuzzy-logic is used to determine grey fuzzy reasoning grade (GFRG. The optimal solution based on this analysis is found to be Ip = 1 A, Ton = 10 μs, Tw = 0.2 s, and Tup = 0.0 s. Analysis of variance (ANOVA results clearly indicate that Ton is the most contributing parameter followed by Ip, for multiple performance characteristics of surface integrity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kong Yan; Li Zhenjie; Ren Xin; Wang Chuan
2012-01-01
Nuclear power plants (NPPs) are very complex grey system, in which faults and signs have not certain corresponding connection, so it's hard to diagnose the faults. A model based on weighted degree of grey incidence of optimized entropy was proposed according to the problem. To validate the system, some simulation experiments about the typical faults of condenser of NPPs were conducted. The results show that the system's conclusion is right, and the system's velocity is fast which can satisfy diagnosis in real time, and with the distinctive features such as good stability, high resolution rate and so on. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ji, Xuanmang; Wang, Jinlai; Jiang, Qichang; Liu, Jinsong
2012-01-01
Grey-grey separate spatial soliton pairs are predicted in a biased series circuit consisting of two centrosymmetric photorefractive (PR) crystals with the two-photon PR effect. The numerical results show that two grey solitons in a soliton pair can affect each other by the light-induced current. The effects of the intensity of solitary waves and gating lights on the normalized profiles and the dynamical evolutions of solitons are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikzad, Mehdi; Mozafari, Babak; Bashirvand, Mahdi; Solaymani, Soodabeh; Ranjbar, Ali Mohamad
2012-01-01
Recently in electricity markets, a massive focus has been made on setting up opportunities for participating demand side. Such opportunities, also known as demand response (DR) options, are triggered by either a grid reliability problem or high electricity prices. Two important challenges that market operators are facing are appropriate designing and reasonable pricing of DR options. In this paper, time-of-use program (TOU) as a prevalent time-varying program is modeled linearly based on own and cross elasticity definition. In order to decide on TOU rates, a stochastic model is proposed in which the optimum TOU rates are determined based on grid reliability index set by the operator. Expected Load Not Supplied (ELNS) is used to evaluate reliability of the power system in each hour. The proposed stochastic model is formulated as a two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming (SMILP) problem and solved using CPLEX solver. The validity of the method is tested over the IEEE 24-bus test system. In this regard, the impact of the proposed pricing method on system load profile; operational costs and required capacity of up- and down-spinning reserve as well as improvement of load factor is demonstrated. Also the sensitivity of the results to elasticity coefficients is investigated. -- Highlights: ► Time-of-use demand response program is linearly modeled. ► A stochastic model is proposed to determine the optimum TOU rates based on ELNS index set by the operator. ► The model is formulated as a short-term two-stage stochastic mixed-integer linear programming problem.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo
2009-01-01
Interval temporal logics are based on interval structures over linearly (or partially) ordered domains, where time intervals, rather than time instants, are the primitive ontological entities. In this paper we introduce and study Right Propositional Neighborhood Logic over natural numbers...... with integer constraints for interval lengths, which is a propositional interval temporal logic featuring a modality for the 'right neighborhood' relation between intervals and explicit integer constraints for interval lengths. We prove that it has the bounded model property with respect to ultimately periodic...
Integer Set Compression and Statistical Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsson, N. Jesper
2014-01-01
enumeration of elements may be arbitrary or random, but where statistics is kept in order to estimate probabilities of elements. We present a recursive subset-size encoding method that is able to benefit from statistics, explore the effects of permuting the enumeration order based on element probabilities......Compression of integer sets and sequences has been extensively studied for settings where elements follow a uniform probability distribution. In addition, methods exist that exploit clustering of elements in order to achieve higher compression performance. In this work, we address the case where...
Allocating the Fixed Resources and Setting Targets in Integer Data Envelopment Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kobra Gholami
2013-11-01
Full Text Available Data envelopment analysis (DEA is a non-parametric approach to evaluate a set of decision making units (DMUs consuming multiple inputs to produce multiple outputs. Formally, DEA use to estimate the efficiency score into the empirical efficient frontier. Also, DEA can be used to allocate resources and set targets for future forecast. The data are continuous in the standard DEA model whereas there are many problems in the real life that data must be integer such as number of employee, machinery, expert and so on. Thus in this paper we propose an approach to allocate fixed resources and set fixed targets with selective integer assumption that is based on an integer data envelopment analysis (IDEA approach for the first time. The major aim in this approach is preserving the efficiency score of DMUs. We use the concept of benchmarking to reach this aim. The numerical example gets to illustrate the applicability of the proposed method.
Grey Guide Repository: presentation and demo
Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Schopfel, Joachim; Farace, Dominic; Frantzen, Jerry
2013-01-01
The goal of this project is to develop an open source repository of good practices in the field of grey literature. That which originated in monographic form will now open and expand to include content from the global grey literature community. Such practices will range from the production and processing of grey literature through to its distribution, uses, and preservation.
Integer 1/0 Knapsack Problem Dynamic Programming Approach in Building Maintenance Optimization
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Viska Dewi Fawzy
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The most common problem in urban areas is the high public demand and the limited provision of housing. In meeting the needs of affordable housing for low income communities, the Government of Indonesia implements Rusunawa Project. Object of this research is Pandanarang Rusunawa. Rusunawa Pandanarang is one of the vertical housing in Cilacap that is facing deterioration issue and needs good maintenance management. This study aims at insetting priority and optimizing maintenance plan due to limited funds (limited budget and the amount of damage that must be repaired.This study uses one of the optimization methods of Dynamic Programing on the application of Integer 1/0 Knapsack Problem, to determine an schedule the maintenance activities. The Criteria that are used such as: the level of building components damage and the level of occupants participation. In the first criterion, the benefit (p is the percentage of damage that is fixed with the cost (w. While on the second criterion, the benefit (p is the percentage of occupant participation rate on the maintenance activities with the cost (w. For the budget of Rp 125.000.000, 00, it was obtained from the simulation that the value of the optimum solution on the first criterion at the 7th stage of 71.88% with total cost Rp 106.000.000, 00. At the second criterion, the value of the optimum solution at the 7th stage of 89.29% with total cost Rp 124.000.000, 00.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Kazemipoor
2012-04-01
Full Text Available A multi-skilled project scheduling problem (MSPSP has been generally presented to schedule a project with staff members as resources. Each activity in project network requires different skills and also staff members have different skills, too. This causes the MSPSP becomes a special type of a multi-mode resource-constrained project scheduling problem (MM-RCPSP with a huge number of modes. Given the importance of this issue, in this paper, a mixed integer linear programming for the MSPSP is presented. Due to the complexity of the problem, a meta-heuristic algorithm is proposed in order to find near optimal solutions. To validate performance of the algorithm, results are compared against exact solutions solved by the LINGO solver. The results are promising and show that optimal or near-optimal solutions are derived for small instances and good solutions for larger instances in reasonable time.
Presolving and regularization in mixed-integer second-order cone optimization
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Friberg, Henrik Alsing
Mixed-integer second-order cone optimization is a powerful mathematical framework capable of representing both logical conditions and nonlinear relationships in mathematical models of industrial optimization problems. What is more, solution methods are already part of many major commercial solvers...... both continuous and mixed-integer conic optimization in general, is discovered and treated. This part of the thesis continues the studies of facial reduction preceding the work of Borwein and Wolkowicz [17] in 1981, when the first algorithmic cure for these kinds of reliability issues were formulated....... An important distinction to make between continuous and mixed-integer optimization, however, is that the reliability issues occurring in mixed-integer optimization cannot be blamed on the practitioner’s formulation of the problem. Specifically, as shown, the causes for these issues may well lie within...
The grey relational approach for evaluating measurement uncertainty with poor information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Luo, Zai; Wang, Yanqing; Zhou, Weihu; Wang, Zhongyu
2015-01-01
The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) is the master document for measurement uncertainty evaluation. However, the GUM may encounter problems and does not work well when the measurement data have poor information. In most cases, poor information means a small data sample and an unknown probability distribution. In these cases, the evaluation of measurement uncertainty has become a bottleneck in practical measurement. To solve this problem, a novel method called the grey relational approach (GRA), different from the statistical theory, is proposed in this paper. The GRA does not require a large sample size or probability distribution information of the measurement data. Mathematically, the GRA can be divided into three parts. Firstly, according to grey relational analysis, the grey relational coefficients between the ideal and the practical measurement output series are obtained. Secondly, the weighted coefficients and the measurement expectation function will be acquired based on the grey relational coefficients. Finally, the measurement uncertainty is evaluated based on grey modeling. In order to validate the performance of this method, simulation experiments were performed and the evaluation results show that the GRA can keep the average error around 5%. Besides, the GRA was also compared with the grey method, the Bessel method, and the Monte Carlo method by a real stress measurement. Both the simulation experiments and real measurement show that the GRA is appropriate and effective to evaluate the measurement uncertainty with poor information. (paper)
Lemmen-Gerdessen, van J.C.; Souverein, O.W.; Veer, van 't P.; Vries, de J.H.M.
2015-01-01
Objective To support the selection of food items for FFQs in such a way that the amount of information on all relevant nutrients is maximised while the food list is as short as possible. Design Selection of the most informative food items to be included in FFQs was modelled as a Mixed Integer Linear
FIELD INVESTIGATION OF BIOLOGICAL TOILET SYSTEMS AND GREY WATER TREATMENT
The objective of the field program was to determine the operational characteristics and overall acceptability of popular models of biological toilets and a few select grey water systems. A field observation scheme was devised to take advantage of in-use sites throughout the State...
Frontal and subcortical grey matter reductions in PTSD.
O'Doherty, Daniel C M; Tickell, Ashleigh; Ryder, Will; Chan, Charles; Hermens, Daniel F; Bennett, Maxwell R; Lagopoulos, Jim
2017-08-30
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterised by a range of debilitating psychological, physical and cognitive symptoms. PTSD has been associated with grey matter atrophy in limbic and frontal cortical brain regions. However, previous studies have reported heterogeneous findings, with grey matter changes observed beyond limbic/frontal areas. Seventy-five adults were recruited from the community, 25 diagnosed with PTSD along with 25 healthy and 25 trauma exposed age and gender matched controls. Participants underwent clinical assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. The data-analyses method Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to estimate cortical grey matter volumes. When compared to both healthy and trauma exposed controls, PTSD subjects demonstrated decreased grey matter volumes within subcortical brain regions-including the hippocampus and amygdala-along with reductions in the anterior cingulate cortex, frontal medial cortex, middle frontal gyrus, superior frontal gyrus, paracingulate gyrus, and precuneus cortex. Significant negative correlations were found between total CAPS lifetime clinical scores/sub-scores and GM volume of both the PTSD and TC groups. GM volumes of the left rACC and right amygdala showed a significant negative correlation within PTSD diagnosed subjects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Mixed-integer representations in control design mathematical foundations and applications
Prodan, Ionela; Olaru, Sorin; Niculescu, Silviu-Iulian
2016-01-01
In this book, the authors propose efficient characterizations of the non-convex regions that appear in many control problems, such as those involving collision/obstacle avoidance and, in a broader sense, in the description of feasible sets for optimization-based control design involving contradictory objectives. The text deals with a large class of systems that require the solution of appropriate optimization problems over a feasible region, which is neither convex nor compact. The proposed approach uses the combinatorial notion of hyperplane arrangement, partitioning the space by a finite collection of hyperplanes, to describe non-convex regions efficiently. Mixed-integer programming techniques are then applied to propose acceptable formulations of the overall problem. Multiple constructions may arise from the same initial problem, and their complexity under various parameters - space dimension, number of binary variables, etc. - is also discussed. This book is a useful tool for academic researchers and grad...
Grey matter alterations in patients with Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN).
Rodriguez-Raecke, Rea; Roa-Sanchez, Pedro; Speckter, Herwin; Fermin-Delgado, Rafael; Perez-Then, Eddy; Oviedo, Jairo; Stoeter, Peter
2014-09-01
Pantothenate Kinase-Associated Neurodegeneration (PKAN) is a rare heritable disease marked by dystonia and loss of movement control. In contrast to the well-known "Eye-of-the-Tiger" sign affecting the globus pallidus, little is known about other deviations of brain morphology, especially about grey matter changes. We investigated 29 patients with PKAN and 29 age-matched healthy controls using Magnet Resonance Imaging and Voxel-Based Morphometry. As compared to controls, children with PKAN showed increased grey matter density in the putamen and nucleus caudatus and adults with PKAN showed increased grey matter density in the ventral part of the anterior cingulate cortex. A multiple regression analysis with dystonia score as predictor showed grey matter reduction in the cerebellum, posterior cingulate cortex, superior parietal lobule, pars triangularis and small frontal and temporal areas and an analysis with age as predictor showed grey matter decreases in the putamen, nucleus caudatus, supplementary motor area and anterior cingulate cortex. The grey matter increases may be regarded as a secondary phenomenon compensating the increased activity of the motor system due to a reduced inhibitory output of the globus pallidus. With increasing age, the grey matter reduction of cortical midline structures however might contribute to the progression of dystonic symptoms due to loss of this compensatory control. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China.
Wang, Laili; Ding, Xuemei; Wu, Xiongying
2013-01-01
Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water footprint (WFdir,blue) and direct grey water footprint (WFdir,grey) of China's textile industry at sector level based on WF methodology. The results showed that WFdir,blue of China's textile industry had an increasing trend from 2001 to 2010. The annual WFdir,blue surpassed 0.92 Gm(3)/yr (giga cubic meter a year) since 2004 and rose to peak value of 1.09 Gm(3)/yr in 2007. The original and residuary WFdir,grey (both were calculated based on the concentration of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr)) of China's textile industry had a similar variation trend with that of WFdir,blue. Among the three sub-sectors of China's textile industry, the manufacture of textiles sector's annual WFdir,blue and WFdir,grey were much larger than those of the manufacture of textile wearing apparel, footware and caps sector and the manufacture of chemical fibers sector. The intensities of WFdir,blue and WF(res)dir,grey of China's textile industry were year by year decreasing through the efforts of issuing restriction policies on freshwater use and wastewater generation and discharge, and popularization of water saving and wastewater treatment technologies.
Rewrite systems for integer arithmetic
H.R. Walters (Pum); H. Zantema (Hans)
1995-01-01
textabstractWe present three term rewrite systems for integer arithmetic with addition, multiplication, and, in two cases, subtraction. All systems are ground confluent and terminating; termination is proved by semantic labelling and recursive path order. The first system represents numbers by
Farace, Dominic J. (GreyNet); Frantzen, Jerry (GreyNet); Stock, Christiane (INIST-CNRS); Henrot, Nathalie (INIST-CNRS); Schöpfel, Joachim (University of Lille); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service
2009-01-01
This poster is based on a paper presented at the Tenth International Conference on Grey Literature (GL10) in which GreyNet's collections of conference preprints were made accessible via the OpenSIGLE Repository. OpenSIGLE offers a unique distribution channel for European grey literature with roots dating back a quarter century. The experience of INIST as service provider and GreyNet as data provider will be further discussed including recent developments. The poster closes...
A Grey Theory Based Approach to Big Data Risk Management Using FMEA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maisa Mendonça Silva
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Big data is the term used to denote enormous sets of data that differ from other classic databases in four main ways: (huge volume, (high velocity, (much greater variety, and (big value. In general, data are stored in a distributed fashion and on computing nodes as a result of which big data may be more susceptible to attacks by hackers. This paper presents a risk model for big data, which comprises Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA and Grey Theory, more precisely grey relational analysis. This approach has several advantages: it provides a structured approach in order to incorporate the impact of big data risk factors; it facilitates the assessment of risk by breaking down the overall risk to big data; and finally its efficient evaluation criteria can help enterprises reduce the risks associated with big data. In order to illustrate the applicability of our proposal in practice, a numerical example, with realistic data based on expert knowledge, was developed. The numerical example analyzes four dimensions, that is, managing identification and access, registering the device and application, managing the infrastructure, and data governance, and 20 failure modes concerning the vulnerabilities of big data. The results show that the most important aspect of risk to big data relates to data governance.
Spatial “Artistic” Networks: From Deconstructing Integer-Functions to Visual Arts
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ernesto Estrada
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Deconstructivism is an aesthetically appealing architectonic style. Here, we identify some general characteristics of this style, such as decomposition of the whole into parts, superposition of layers, and conservation of the memory of the whole. Using these attributes, we propose a method to deconstruct functions based on integers. Using this integer-function deconstruction we generate spatial networks which display a few artistic attributes such as (i biomorphic shapes, (ii symmetry, and (iii beauty. In building these networks, the deconstructed integer-functions are used as the coordinates of the nodes in a unit square, which are then joined according to a given connection radius like in random geometric graphs (RGGs. Some graph-theoretic invariants of these networks are calculated and compared with the classical RGGs. We then show how these networks inspire an artist to create artistic compositions using mixed techniques on canvas and on paper. Finally, we call for avoiding that the applicability of (network sciences should not go in detriment of curiosity-driven, and aesthetic-driven, researches. We claim that the aesthetic of network research, and not only its applicability, would be an attractor for new minds to this field.
Dependence of quality properties for grey iron on used raw materials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Weiss
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Grey iron castings keep the first place among castings on base of iron. Present trend in growing entrance production costs of cast stock force manufacturer to cost minimizing. Therefore is most actual deal replacement pig iron by steel scrap. In contribution are presented results research work relating to influence of raw materials on grey iron properties.
Selecting an optimal mixed products using grey relationship model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farshad Faezy Razi
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated supplier selection and inventory management using grey relationship model (GRM as well as multi-objective decision making process. The proposed model of this paper first ranks different suppliers based on GRM technique and then determines the optimum level of inventory by considering different objectives. To show the implementation of the proposed model, we use some benchmark data presented by Talluri and Baker [Talluri, S., & Baker, R. C. (2002. A multi-phase mathematical programming approach for effective supply chain design. European Journal of Operational Research, 141(3, 544-558.]. The preliminary results indicate that the proposed model of this paper is capable of handling different criteria for supplier selection.
Rewrite systems for integer arithmetic
Walters, H.R.; Zantema, H.
1994-01-01
We present three term rewrite systems for integer arithmetic with addition, multiplication, and, in two cases, subtraction. All systems are ground con uent and terminating; termination is proved by semantic labelling and recursive path order. The first system represents numbers by successor and
A few Smarandache Integer Sequences
Ibstedt, Henry
2010-01-01
This paper deals with the analysis of a few Smarandache Integer Sequences which first appeared in Properties or the Numbers, F. Smarandache, University or Craiova Archives, 1975. The first four sequences are recurrence generated sequences while the last three are concatenation sequences.
Lee, Dongyul; Lee, Chaewoo
2014-01-01
The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC) with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC) provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs) to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP) and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongyul Lee
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The advancement in wideband wireless network supports real time services such as IPTV and live video streaming. However, because of the sharing nature of the wireless medium, efficient resource allocation has been studied to achieve a high level of acceptability and proliferation of wireless multimedia. Scalable video coding (SVC with adaptive modulation and coding (AMC provides an excellent solution for wireless video streaming. By assigning different modulation and coding schemes (MCSs to video layers, SVC can provide good video quality to users in good channel conditions and also basic video quality to users in bad channel conditions. For optimal resource allocation, a key issue in applying SVC in the wireless multicast service is how to assign MCSs and the time resources to each SVC layer in the heterogeneous channel condition. We formulate this problem with integer linear programming (ILP and provide numerical results to show the performance under 802.16 m environment. The result shows that our methodology enhances the overall system throughput compared to an existing algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akyene Tetteh
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Background: Although the Internet boosts business profitability, without certain activities like efficient transportation, scheduling, products ordered via the Internet may reach their destination very late. The environmental problems (vehicle part disposal, carbon monoxide [CO], nitrogen oxide [NOx] and hydrocarbons [HC] associated with transportation are mostly not accounted for by industries. Objectives: The main objective of this article is to minimising negative externalities cost in e-commerce environments. Method: The 0-1 mixed integer linear programming (0-1 MILP model was used to model the problem statement. The result was further analysed using the externality percentage impact factor (EPIF. Results: The simulation results suggest that (1 The mode of ordering refined petroleum products does not impact on the cost of distribution, (2 an increase in private cost is directly proportional to the externality cost, (3 externality cost is largely controlled by the government and number of vehicles used in the distribution and this is in no way influenced by the mode of request (i.e. Internet or otherwise and (4 externality cost may be reduce by using more ecofriendly fuel system.
A time series model: First-order integer-valued autoregressive (INAR(1))
Simarmata, D. M.; Novkaniza, F.; Widyaningsih, Y.
2017-07-01
Nonnegative integer-valued time series arises in many applications. A time series model: first-order Integer-valued AutoRegressive (INAR(1)) is constructed by binomial thinning operator to model nonnegative integer-valued time series. INAR (1) depends on one period from the process before. The parameter of the model can be estimated by Conditional Least Squares (CLS). Specification of INAR(1) is following the specification of (AR(1)). Forecasting in INAR(1) uses median or Bayesian forecasting methodology. Median forecasting methodology obtains integer s, which is cumulative density function (CDF) until s, is more than or equal to 0.5. Bayesian forecasting methodology forecasts h-step-ahead of generating the parameter of the model and parameter of innovation term using Adaptive Rejection Metropolis Sampling within Gibbs sampling (ARMS), then finding the least integer s, where CDF until s is more than or equal to u . u is a value taken from the Uniform(0,1) distribution. INAR(1) is applied on pneumonia case in Penjaringan, Jakarta Utara, January 2008 until April 2016 monthly.
A mixed integer linear programming model applied in barge planning for Omya
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David Bredström
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This article presents a mathematical model for barge transport planning on the river Rhine, which is part of a decision support system (DSS recently taken into use by the Swiss company Omya. The system is operated by Omya’s regional office in Cologne, Germany, responsible for distribution planning at the regional distribution center (RDC in Moerdijk, the Netherlands. The distribution planning is a vital part of supply chain management of Omya’s production of Norwegian high quality calcium carbonate slurry, supplied to European paper manufacturers. The DSS operates within a vendor managed inventory (VMI setting, where the customer inventories are monitored by Omya, who decides upon the refilling days and quantities delivered by barges. The barge planning problem falls into the category of inventory routing problems (IRP and is further characterized with multiple products, heterogeneous fleet with availability restrictions (the fleet is owned by third party, vehicle compartments, dependency of barge capacity on water-level, multiple customer visits, bounded customer inventories and rolling planning horizon. There are additional modelling details which had to be considered to make it possible to employ the model in practice at a sufficient level of detail. To the best of our knowledge, we have not been able to find similar models covering all these aspects in barge planning. This article presents the developed mixed-integer programming model and discusses practical experience with its solution. Briefly, it also puts the model into the context of the entire business case of value chain optimization in Omya.
Integers without large prime factors in short intervals: Conditional ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
α > 0 the interval (X, X +. √. X(log X)1/2+o(1)] contains an integer having no prime factor exceeding Xα for all X sufficiently large. Keywords. Smooth numbers; Riemann zeta function. 1. Introduction. Suppose P (n) denotes the largest prime factor of an integer n > 1 and let us declare. P(1) = 1. Given a positive real number y, ...
Parallel Integer Factorization Using Quadratic Forms
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
McMath, Stephen S
2005-01-01
Factorization is important for both practical and theoretical reasons. In secure digital communication, security of the commonly used RSA public key cryptosystem depends on the difficulty of factoring large integers...
Sanden, van der J.J.; Hoekman, D.H.
2005-01-01
In the present paper we review relationships between commonly used statistical approaches to analysis of image texture. The approaches considered characterize image texture by means of the statistics of grey- tone co- occurrence contrast, grey- tone co- occurrence correlation, semivariance, and
A Novel Grey Wave Method for Predicting Total Chinese Trade Volume
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kedong Yin
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The total trade volume of a country is an important way of appraising its international trade situation. A prediction based on trade volume will help enterprises arrange production efficiently and promote the sustainability of the international trade. Because the total Chinese trade volume fluctuates over time, this paper proposes a Grey wave forecasting model with a Hodrick–Prescott filter (HP filter to forecast it. This novel model first parses time series into long-term trend and short-term cycle. Second, the model uses a general GM (1,1 to predict the trend term and the Grey wave forecasting model to predict the cycle term. Empirical analysis shows that the improved Grey wave prediction method provides a much more accurate forecast than the basic Grey wave prediction method, achieving better prediction results than autoregressive moving average model (ARMA.
A new algorithm for benchmarking in integer data envelopment analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. M. Omran
2012-08-01
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of integer data in data envelopment analysis (DEA. The inputs and outputs in different types of DEA are considered to be continuous. In most application-oriented problems, some or all data are integers; and subsequently, the continuous condition of the values is omitted. For example, situations in which the inputs/outputs are representatives of the number of cars, people, etc. In fact, the benchmark unit is artificial and does not contain integer inputs/outputs after projection on the efficiency frontier. By rounding off the projection point, we may lose the feasibility or end up having inefficient DMU. In such cases, it is required to provide a benchmark unit such that the considered unit reaches the efficiency. In the present short communication, by proposing a novel algorithm, the projecting of an inefficient DMU is carried out in such a way that produced benchmarking takes values with fully integer inputs/outputs.
Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke
Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H.; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M.; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Zeng, Jinsheng
2016-01-01
The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor’s lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion–symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter
Sethuramalingam, Prabhu; Vinayagam, Babu Kupusamy
2016-07-01
Carbon nanotube mixed grinding wheel is used in the grinding process to analyze the surface characteristics of AISI D2 tool steel material. Till now no work has been carried out using carbon nanotube based grinding wheel. Carbon nanotube based grinding wheel has excellent thermal conductivity and good mechanical properties which are used to improve the surface finish of the workpiece. In the present study, the multi response optimization of process parameters like surface roughness and metal removal rate of grinding process of single wall carbon nanotube (CNT) in mixed cutting fluids is undertaken using orthogonal array with grey relational analysis. Experiments are performed with designated grinding conditions obtained using the L9 orthogonal array. Based on the results of the grey relational analysis, a set of optimum grinding parameters is obtained. Using the analysis of variance approach the significant machining parameters are found. Empirical model for the prediction of output parameters has been developed using regression analysis and the results are compared empirically, for conditions of with and without CNT grinding wheel in grinding process.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Palanisamy D.
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The machinability and the process parameter optimization of turning operation for 15-5 Precipitation Hardening (PH stainless steel have been investigated based on the Taguchi based grey approach and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS. An L27 orthogonal array was selected for planning the experiment. Cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate were considered as input process parameters. Cutting force (Fz and surface roughness (Ra were considered as the performance measures. These performance measures were optimized for the improvement of machinability quality of product. A comparison is made between the multi-criteria decision making tools. Grey Relational Analysis (GRA and TOPSIS are used to confirm and prove the similarity. To determine the influence of process parameters, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA is employed. The end results of experimental investigation proved that the machining performance can be enhanced effectively with the assistance of the proposed approaches.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew Tribe
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Traditionally, culling has been the expedient, most common, and in many cases, the only tool used to control free-ranging kangaroo populations. We applied a reproductive control program to a population of eastern grey kangaroos confined to a golf course in South East Queensland. The program aimed to reduce fecundity sufficiently for the population to decrease over time so that overgrazing of the fairways and the frequency of human–animal conflict situations were minimised. In 2003, 92% of the female kangaroos above 5 kg bodyweight were implanted with the GnRH agonist deslorelin after darting with a dissociative anaesthetic. In 2007, 86% of the females above 5 kg were implanted with deslorelin and also 87% of the males above 5 kg were sterilised by either orchidectomy or vasectomy. In 2005, 2008 and 2009, the population was censused to assess the effect of each treatment. The 2003 deslorelin program resulted in effective zero population growth for approximately 2.5 years. The combined deslorelin–surgery program in 2007 reduced the birth rate from 0.3 to 0.06%/year for 16 months, resulting in a 27% population reduction by November 2009. The results were consistent with implants conferring contraception to 100% of implanted females for at least 12 months. The iatrogenic mortality rates for each program were 10.5% and 4.9%, respectively, with 50% of all mortalities due to darting-related injuries, exertional myopathy/hyperthermia or recovery misadventure. The short term sexual and agonistic behaviour of the males was assessed for the 2007 program: no significant changes were seen in adult males given the vasectomy procedure, while sexual behaviours’ were decreased in adult males given the orchidectomy procedure. It is concluded that female reproduction was effectively controlled by implantation with deslorrelin and male reproductive behaviour was reduced by orchidectomy, which together achieved population control.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Manzardo, Alessandro; Ren, Jingzheng; Mazzi, Anna
2012-01-01
The objective of this research is to develop a grey-based group decision-making methodology for the selection of the best renewable energy technology (including hydrogen) using a life cycle sustainability perspective. The traditional grey relational analysis has been modified to better address...... the issue of uncertainty. The proposed methodology allows multi-person to participate in the decision-making process and to give linguistic evaluation on the weights of the criteria and the performance of the alternative technologies. In this paper, twelve hydrogen production technologies have been assessed...... using the proposed methodology, electrolysis of water technology by hydropower has been considered to be the best technology for hydrogen production according to the decision-making group....
Landman, Bruce M
2014-01-01
Ramsey theory is the study of the structure of mathematical objects that is preserved under partitions. In its full generality, Ramsey theory is quite powerful, but can quickly become complicated. By limiting the focus of this book to Ramsey theory applied to the set of integers, the authors have produced a gentle, but meaningful, introduction to an important and enticing branch of modern mathematics. Ramsey Theory on the Integers offers students a glimpse into the world of mathematical research and the opportunity for them to begin pondering unsolved problems. For this new edition, several sections have been added and others have been significantly updated. Among the newly introduced topics are: rainbow Ramsey theory, an "inequality" version of Schur's theorem, monochromatic solutions of recurrence relations, Ramsey results involving both sums and products, monochromatic sets avoiding certain differences, Ramsey properties for polynomial progressions, generalizations of the Erdős-Ginzberg-Ziv theorem, and t...
Suppression of tunneling by interference in half-integer--spin particles
Loss, Daniel; DiVincenzo, David P.; Grinstein, G.
1992-01-01
Within a wide class of ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic systems, quantum tunneling of magnetization direction is spin-parity dependent: it vanishes for magnetic particles with half-integer spin, but is allowed for integer spin. A coherent-state path integral calculation shows that this topological effect results from interference between tunneling paths.
Green Walls as an Approach in Grey Water Treatment
Rysulova, Martina; Kaposztasova, Daniela; Vranayova, Zuzana
2017-10-01
Grey water contributes significantly to waste water parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), total phosphorus (Ptotal), total nitrogen (Ntotal), ammonium, boron, metals, salts, surfactants, synthetic chemicals, oils and greases, xenobiotic substances and microorganisms. Concentration of these pollutants and the water quality highlights the importance of treatment process in grey water systems. Treatment technologies operating under low energy and maintenance are usually preferred, since they are more cost effective for users. Treatment technologies based on natural processes represent an example of such technology including vegetated wall. Main aim of this paper is to introduce the proposal of vegetated wall managing grey water and brief characteristic of proposed system. Is expected that prepared experiment will establish the purifying ability and the potential of green wall application as an efficient treatment technology.
Non-integer viscoelastic constitutive law to model soft biological tissues to in-vivo indentation.
Demirci, Nagehan; Tönük, Ergin
2014-01-01
During the last decades, derivatives and integrals of non-integer orders are being more commonly used for the description of constitutive behavior of various viscoelastic materials including soft biological tissues. Compared to integer order constitutive relations, non-integer order viscoelastic material models of soft biological tissues are capable of capturing a wider range of viscoelastic behavior obtained from experiments. Although integer order models may yield comparably accurate results, non-integer order material models have less number of parameters to be identified in addition to description of an intermediate material that can monotonically and continuously be adjusted in between an ideal elastic solid and an ideal viscous fluid. In this work, starting with some preliminaries on non-integer (fractional) calculus, the "spring-pot", (intermediate mechanical element between a solid and a fluid), non-integer order three element (Zener) solid model, finally a user-defined large strain non-integer order viscoelastic constitutive model was constructed to be used in finite element simulations. Using the constitutive equation developed, by utilizing inverse finite element method and in vivo indentation experiments, soft tissue material identification was performed. The results indicate that material coefficients obtained from relaxation experiments, when optimized with creep experimental data could simulate relaxation, creep and cyclic loading and unloading experiments accurately. Non-integer calculus viscoelastic constitutive models, having physical interpretation and modeling experimental data accurately is a good alternative to classical phenomenological viscoelastic constitutive equations.
Grey literature: An important resource in systematic reviews.
Paez, Arsenio
2017-12-21
Systematic reviews aid the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Grey literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Grey literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Grey literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews' comprehensiveness and timeliness and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Grey literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including grey literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out grey literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including grey literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through grey literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within grey literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of grey literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.
Frozen density embedding with non-integer subsystems' particle numbers.
Fabiano, Eduardo; Laricchia, Savio; Della Sala, Fabio
2014-03-21
We extend the frozen density embedding theory to non-integer subsystems' particles numbers. Different features of this formulation are discussed, with special concern for approximate embedding calculations. In particular, we highlight the relation between the non-integer particle-number partition scheme and the resulting embedding errors. Finally, we provide a discussion of the implications of the present theory for the derivative discontinuity issue and the calculation of chemical reactivity descriptors.
TREATMENT OF GREY WATER USING CONSTRUCTED WETLAND SYSTEM
David Prashant Asirvadam; K. Dhivya Bharathi; P. Durairaj; M. Kaleeswaran; S. Abinaya
2017-01-01
The grey water is the waste water that is generated in the households or office buildings from streams without fecal contamination. Sources of grey water include water from sinks, showers, baths, washing machine or dish washers. As grey water contains fewer pathogens than domestic waste, it is generally safer to handle and easier to treat and reuse onsite for toilet flushing, landscape or crop irrigation. The removal of toxic content in grey water in this era is one of the most needed process...
Ferencz, Donald C.; Viterna, Larry A.
1991-01-01
ALPS is a computer program which can be used to solve general linear program (optimization) problems. ALPS was designed for those who have minimal linear programming (LP) knowledge and features a menu-driven scheme to guide the user through the process of creating and solving LP formulations. Once created, the problems can be edited and stored in standard DOS ASCII files to provide portability to various word processors or even other linear programming packages. Unlike many math-oriented LP solvers, ALPS contains an LP parser that reads through the LP formulation and reports several types of errors to the user. ALPS provides a large amount of solution data which is often useful in problem solving. In addition to pure linear programs, ALPS can solve for integer, mixed integer, and binary type problems. Pure linear programs are solved with the revised simplex method. Integer or mixed integer programs are solved initially with the revised simplex, and the completed using the branch-and-bound technique. Binary programs are solved with the method of implicit enumeration. This manual describes how to use ALPS to create, edit, and solve linear programming problems. Instructions for installing ALPS on a PC compatible computer are included in the appendices along with a general introduction to linear programming. A programmers guide is also included for assistance in modifying and maintaining the program.
Menu-Driven Solver Of Linear-Programming Problems
Viterna, L. A.; Ferencz, D.
1992-01-01
Program assists inexperienced user in formulating linear-programming problems. A Linear Program Solver (ALPS) computer program is full-featured LP analysis program. Solves plain linear-programming problems as well as more-complicated mixed-integer and pure-integer programs. Also contains efficient technique for solution of purely binary linear-programming problems. Written entirely in IBM's APL2/PC software, Version 1.01. Packed program contains licensed material, property of IBM (copyright 1988, all rights reserved).
MRI of laminar heterotopic grey matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vahldiek, G.; Terwey, B.; Hanefeld, F.; Sperner, J.
1990-01-01
In one baby and 2 infants who presented with psychomotor retardation and epilepsy laminar heterotopic grey matter was demonstrated via magnetic resonance imaging. Laminar heterotopia is a rare migrational disorder with bilateral symmetric ribbons of grey matter within the centrum semiovale, separated from ventricular walls and from obviously normal-sized cortex by broad layers of white matter. The heterotopic grey matter has a signal intensity which is isointense compared with that of normal cortex irrespective of image weighting. On account of this signal behaviour differentiation against other white matter diseases is easy. The knowledge of these pathognomonic findings facilitates correct diagnosis, especially during the first and the second year of life, when signal intensities of white and grey matter differ from normal findings because of the occasionally delayed myelination process. Therefore, further diagnostic procedures can be avoided and early counseling of parents is possible. (orig.) [de
Catanzaro, Daniele; Shackney, Stanley E; Schaffer, Alejandro A; Schwartz, Russell
2016-01-01
Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) is a precursor lesion of Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. Investigating its temporal progression could provide fundamental new insights for the development of better diagnostic tools to predict which cases of DCIS will progress to IDC. We investigate the problem of reconstructing a plausible progression from single-cell sampled data of an individual with synchronous DCIS and IDC. Specifically, by using a number of assumptions derived from the observation of cellular atypia occurring in IDC, we design a possible predictive model using integer linear programming (ILP). Computational experiments carried out on a preexisting data set of 13 patients with simultaneous DCIS and IDC show that the corresponding predicted progression models are classifiable into categories having specific evolutionary characteristics. The approach provides new insights into mechanisms of clonal progression in breast cancers and helps illustrate the power of the ILP approach for similar problems in reconstructing tumor evolution scenarios under complex sets of constraints.
Right hemisphere grey matter structure and language outcomes in chronic left hemisphere stroke.
Xing, Shihui; Lacey, Elizabeth H; Skipper-Kallal, Laura M; Jiang, Xiong; Harris-Love, Michelle L; Zeng, Jinsheng; Turkeltaub, Peter E
2016-01-01
The neural mechanisms underlying recovery of language after left hemisphere stroke remain elusive. Although older evidence suggested that right hemisphere language homologues compensate for damage in left hemisphere language areas, the current prevailing theory suggests that right hemisphere engagement is ineffective or even maladaptive. Using a novel combination of support vector regression-based lesion-symptom mapping and voxel-based morphometry, we aimed to determine whether local grey matter volume in the right hemisphere independently contributes to aphasia outcomes after chronic left hemisphere stroke. Thirty-two left hemisphere stroke survivors with aphasia underwent language assessment with the Western Aphasia Battery-Revised and tests of other cognitive domains. High-resolution T1-weighted images were obtained in aphasia patients and 30 demographically matched healthy controls. Support vector regression-based multivariate lesion-symptom mapping was used to identify critical language areas in the left hemisphere and then to quantify each stroke survivor's lesion burden in these areas. After controlling for these direct effects of the stroke on language, voxel-based morphometry was then used to determine whether local grey matter volumes in the right hemisphere explained additional variance in language outcomes. In brain areas in which grey matter volumes related to language outcomes, we then compared grey matter volumes in patients and healthy controls to assess post-stroke plasticity. Lesion-symptom mapping showed that specific left hemisphere regions related to different language abilities. After controlling for lesion burden in these areas, lesion size, and demographic factors, grey matter volumes in parts of the right temporoparietal cortex positively related to spontaneous speech, naming, and repetition scores. Examining whether domain general cognitive functions might explain these relationships, partial correlations demonstrated that grey matter
Deterministic integer multiple firing depending on initial state in Wang model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Xie Yong [Institute of Nonlinear Dynamics, MSSV, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)]. E-mail: yxie@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Xu Jianxue [Institute of Nonlinear Dynamics, MSSV, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Jiang Jun [Institute of Nonlinear Dynamics, MSSV, Department of Engineering Mechanics, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)
2006-12-15
We investigate numerically dynamical behaviour of the Wang model, which describes the rhythmic activities of thalamic relay neurons. The model neuron exhibits Type I excitability from a global view, but Type II excitability from a local view. There exists a narrow range of bistability, in which a subthreshold oscillation and a suprathreshold firing behaviour coexist. A special firing pattern, integer multiple firing can be found in the certain part of the bistable range. The characteristic feature of such firing pattern is that the histogram of interspike intervals has a multipeaked structure, and the peaks are located at about integer multiples of a basic interspike interval. Since the Wang model is noise-free, the integer multiple firing is a deterministic firing pattern. The existence of bistability leads to the deterministic integer multiple firing depending on the initial state of the model neuron, i.e., the initial values of the state variables.
Deterministic integer multiple firing depending on initial state in Wang model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xie Yong; Xu Jianxue; Jiang Jun
2006-01-01
We investigate numerically dynamical behaviour of the Wang model, which describes the rhythmic activities of thalamic relay neurons. The model neuron exhibits Type I excitability from a global view, but Type II excitability from a local view. There exists a narrow range of bistability, in which a subthreshold oscillation and a suprathreshold firing behaviour coexist. A special firing pattern, integer multiple firing can be found in the certain part of the bistable range. The characteristic feature of such firing pattern is that the histogram of interspike intervals has a multipeaked structure, and the peaks are located at about integer multiples of a basic interspike interval. Since the Wang model is noise-free, the integer multiple firing is a deterministic firing pattern. The existence of bistability leads to the deterministic integer multiple firing depending on the initial state of the model neuron, i.e., the initial values of the state variables
5th Conference on Non-integer Order Calculus and Its Applications
Kacprzyk, Janusz; Baranowski, Jerzy
2013-01-01
This volume presents various aspects of non-integer order systems, also known as fractional systems, which have recently attracted an increasing attention in the scientific community of systems science, applied mathematics, control theory. Non-integer systems have become relevant for many fields of science and technology exemplified by the modeling of signal transmission, electric noise, dielectric polarization, heat transfer, electrochemical reactions, thermal processes, acoustics, etc. The content is divided into six parts, every of which considers one of the currently relevant problems. In the first part the Realization problem is discussed, with a special focus on positive systems. The second part considers stability of certain classes of non-integer order systems with and without delays. The third part is focused on such important aspects as controllability, observability and optimization especially in discrete time. The fourth part is focused on distributed systems where non-integer calculus leads to ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Zhang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents four different integer sequences to construct quasi-cyclic low-density parity-check (QC-LDPC codes with mathematical theory. The paper introduces the procedure of the coding principle and coding. Four different integer sequences constructing QC-LDPC code are compared with LDPC codes by using PEG algorithm, array codes, and the Mackey codes, respectively. Then, the integer sequence QC-LDPC codes are used in coded cooperative communication. Simulation results show that the integer sequence constructed QC-LDPC codes are effective, and overall performance is better than that of other types of LDPC codes in the coded cooperative communication. The performance of Dayan integer sequence constructed QC-LDPC is the most excellent performance.
Clinical nursing and midwifery research: grey literature in African countries.
Sun, C; Dohrn, J; Omoni, G; Malata, A; Klopper, H; Larson, E
2016-03-01
This study reviewed grey literature to assess clinical nursing and midwifery research conducted in southern and eastern African countries over the past decade. The shortage of published nursing research from African countries severely limits the ability of practicing nurses and midwives to base clinical decisions on solid evidence. However, little is known regarding unpublished or unindexed clinical research ('grey literature'), a potentially rich source of information. Identifying these sources may reveal resources to assist nurses in providing evidence-based care. This scoping review of grey literature on clinical nursing and midwifery research in southern and eastern African countries helped to identify gaps in research and assess whether these gaps differ from published research. Systematic searches of grey literature were performed. Research was included if it was conducted by nurses in 1 of 25 southern or eastern African countries, between 2004 and 2014 and included patient outcomes. Data were extracted on location, institution, research topic, institutional connections and author information. Chi-square tests were performed to compare differences between indexed and non-indexed literature. We found 262 studies by 287 authors from 17 southern and eastern African countries covering 13 topics. Although all topics were also found in indexed literature and there were statistically significant differences between the number of times, fewer topics were covered in grey literature vs. indexed. Patient satisfaction and experience and traditional health practices were more likely to be published, whereas chronic disease, assault and paediatric-related research were less often published. Generally, there is a paucity of clinical nursing research in this region. This could reflect the shortage of nurses prepared to conduct research in this region. Nurses may find additional resources for evidence in the grey literature. A complete understanding of the state of nursing
Wei, Hang; Lin, Li; Zhang, Yuan; Wang, Lianjing; Chen, Qinqun
2013-02-01
A model based on grey system theory was proposed for pattern recognition in chromatographic fingerprints (CF) of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The grey relational grade among the data series of each testing CF and the ideal CF was obtained by entropy and norm respectively, then the principle of "maximal matching degree" was introduced to make judgments, so as to achieve the purpose of variety identification and quality evaluation. A satisfactory result in the high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of 56 batches of different varieties of Exocarpium Citrus Grandis was achieved with this model. The errors in the chromatographic fingerprint analysis caused by traditional similarity method or grey correlation method were overcome, as the samples of Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa' and Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck were correctly distinguished in the experiment. Furthermore in the study on the variety identification of Citrus grandis 'Tomentosa', the recognition rates were up to 92.85%, although the types and the contents of the chemical compositions of the samples were very close. At the same time, the model had the merits of low computation complexity and easy operation by computer programming. The research indicated that the grey system theory has good applicability to pattern recognition in the chromatographic fingerprints of TCM.
Grey water reclamation by decentralized MBR prototype
Santasmasas Rubiralta, Carme; Rovira Boixaderas, Miquel; Clarens Blanco, Frederic; Valderrama Angel, César Alberto
2013-01-01
Grey water treatment and reuse for non-drinking water requirements has become of great interest in arid and semi-arid zones where water resources are becoming both quantitatively and qualitatively scarce. In this study a decentralized and automatic MBR prototype has been designed and installed in the REMOSA facilities for treatment of low-load grey water to be recycled in flushing-toilet application. The recycling treatment of grey water comprises four stages: screening, biological oxidation,...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duan Yunyun; Liu Yaou; Liang Peipeng; Jia Xiuqin; Yu Chunshui; Qin Wen; Sun Hui; Liao Zhangyuan; Ye Jing; Li Kuncheng
2012-01-01
Purpose: Previous studies have established regional grey matter (GM) loss in multiple sclerosis (MS). However, whether there is any regional GM atrophy in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and the difference between NMO and MS is unclear. The present study addresses this issue by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and T1-weighted three-dimensional MRI were obtained from 26 NMO patients, 26 relapsing–remitting MS (RRMS) patients, and 26 normal controls. An analysis of covariance model assessed with cluster size inference was used to compare GM volume among three groups. The correlations of GM volume changes with disease duration, expanded disability status scale (EDSS) and brain T2 lesion volume (LV) were analyzed. Results: GM atrophy was found in NMO patients in several regions of frontal, temporal, parietal lobes and insula (uncorrected, p < 0.001). While extensive GM atrophy was found in RRMS patients, including most cortical regions and the deep grey matter (corrected for multiple comparisons, p < 0.01). Compared with NMO, those with RRMS had significant GM loss in bilateral thalami, caudate, left parahippocampal gyrus, right hippocampus and insula (corrected, p < 0.01). In RRMS group, regional GM loss in right caudate and bilateral thalami were strongly correlated with brain T2LV. Conclusions: Our study found the difference of GM atrophy between NMO and RRMS patients mainly in deep grey matter. The correlational results suggested axonal degeneration from lesions on T2WI may be a key pathogenesis of atrophy in deep grey matter in RRMS.
Dang, Yaoguo; Mao, Wenxin
2018-01-01
In view of the multi-attribute decision-making problem that the attribute values are grey multi-source heterogeneous data, a decision-making method based on kernel and greyness degree is proposed. The definitions of kernel and greyness degree of an extended grey number in a grey multi-source heterogeneous data sequence are given. On this basis, we construct the kernel vector and greyness degree vector of the sequence to whiten the multi-source heterogeneous information, then a grey relational bi-directional projection ranking method is presented. Considering the multi-attribute multi-level decision structure and the causalities between attributes in decision-making problem, the HG-DEMATEL method is proposed to determine the hierarchical attribute weights. A green supplier selection example is provided to demonstrate the rationality and validity of the proposed method. PMID:29510521
Sun, Huifang; Dang, Yaoguo; Mao, Wenxin
2018-03-03
In view of the multi-attribute decision-making problem that the attribute values are grey multi-source heterogeneous data, a decision-making method based on kernel and greyness degree is proposed. The definitions of kernel and greyness degree of an extended grey number in a grey multi-source heterogeneous data sequence are given. On this basis, we construct the kernel vector and greyness degree vector of the sequence to whiten the multi-source heterogeneous information, then a grey relational bi-directional projection ranking method is presented. Considering the multi-attribute multi-level decision structure and the causalities between attributes in decision-making problem, the HG-DEMATEL method is proposed to determine the hierarchical attribute weights. A green supplier selection example is provided to demonstrate the rationality and validity of the proposed method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maoyuan Feng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This study proposes a mixed integer linear programming (MILP model to optimize the spillways scheduling for reservoir flood control. Unlike the conventional reservoir operation model, the proposed MILP model specifies the spillways status (including the number of spillways to be open and the degree of the spillway opened instead of reservoir release, since the release is actually controlled by using the spillway. The piecewise linear approximation is used to formulate the relationship between the reservoir storage and water release for a spillway, which should be open/closed with a status depicted by a binary variable. The control order and symmetry rules of spillways are described and incorporated into the constraints for meeting the practical demand. Thus, a MILP model is set up to minimize the maximum reservoir storage. The General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS and IBM ILOG CPLEX Optimization Studio (CPLEX software are used to find the optimal solution for the proposed MILP model. The China’s Three Gorges Reservoir, whose spillways are of five types with the total number of 80, is selected as the case study. It is shown that the proposed model decreases the flood risk compared with the conventional operation and makes the operation more practical by specifying the spillways status directly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yılmaz GÖKŞEN
2016-11-01
to the personnel, a person’s contribution coefficients have been calculated. These values are used in the assignment model. This model has been solved and evaluated as 0-1 integer programming. Model outputs that have been solved again by using additional constraints like task type and disability conditions and these are compared with the previous figures.
Alternative Axiomatic Characterizations of the Grey Shapley Value
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sirma Zeynep Alparslan Gok
2014-05-01
Full Text Available The Shapley value, one of the most common solution concepts of cooperative game theory is defined and axiomatically characterized in different game-theoretic models. Certainly, the Shapley value can be used in interesting sharing cost/reward problems in the Operations Research area such as connection, routing, scheduling, production and inventory situations. In this paper, we focus on the Shapley value for cooperative games, where the set of players is finite and the coalition values are interval grey numbers. The central question in this paper is how to characterize the grey Shapley value. In this context, we present two alternative axiomatic characterizations. First, we characterize the grey Shapley value using the properties of efficiency, symmetry and strong monotonicity. Second, we characterize the grey Shapley value by using the grey dividends.
Direct comparison of fractional and integer quantized Hall resistance
Ahlers, Franz J.; Götz, Martin; Pierz, Klaus
2017-08-01
We present precision measurements of the fractional quantized Hall effect, where the quantized resistance {{R}≤ft[ 1/3 \\right]} in the fractional quantum Hall state at filling factor 1/3 was compared with a quantized resistance {{R}[2]} , represented by an integer quantum Hall state at filling factor 2. A cryogenic current comparator bridge capable of currents down to the nanoampere range was used to directly compare two resistance values of two GaAs-based devices located in two cryostats. A value of 1-(5.3 ± 6.3) 10-8 (95% confidence level) was obtained for the ratio ({{R}≤ft[ 1/3 \\right]}/6{{R}[2]} ). This constitutes the most precise comparison of integer resistance quantization (in terms of h/e 2) in single-particle systems and of fractional quantization in fractionally charged quasi-particle systems. While not relevant for practical metrology, such a test of the validity of the underlying physics is of significance in the context of the upcoming revision of the SI.
Sabrewing: A lightweight architecture for combined floating-point and integer arithmetic
Bruintjes, Tom; Walters, K.H.G.; Gerez, Sabih H.; Molenkamp, Egbert; Smit, Gerardus Johannes Maria
In spite of the fact that floating-point arithmetic is costly in terms of silicon area, the joint design of hardware for floating-point and integer arithmetic is seldom considered. While components like multipliers and adders can potentially be shared, floating-point and integer units in
Applications exponential approximation by integer shifts of Gaussian functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. M. Sitnik
2013-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider approximations of functions using integer shifts of Gaussians – quadratic exponentials. A method is proposed to find coefficients of node functions by solving linear systems of equations. The explicit formula for the determinant of the system is found, based on it solvability of linear system under consideration is proved and uniqueness of its solution. We compare results with known ones and briefly indicate applications to signal theory.
Application of grey system theory in telecare.
Huang, Jui-Chen
2011-05-01
As a superiority to conventional statistical models, grey models require only a limited amount of data to estimate the behaviour of unknown systems. Grey system theory can be used in the effective factor assessment, and used in large samples where data are not available or uncertain whether the data was representative. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to adopt grey system theory to discuss older adult users' opinions on the telecare and its effect on their quality of life. This study surveyed the older adult users of Taiwan as subjects. User perception of the telecare services was collected via face-to-face interview. The grey system theory was used to examine the model. The results showed that the overall living quality has the greatest effect on the perceived effects of the telecare on their quality of life, followed by the acquisition of information, accessibility of medical care services, and safety. This finding may serve as a reference to future studies and it also shows that the grey system theory is a feasible analysis method. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Krishnamoorthy
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a new lossy to lossless image coding scheme combined with Orthogonal Polynomials Transform and Integer Wavelet Transform is proposed. The Lifting Scheme based Integer Wavelet Transform (LS-IWT is first applied on the image in order to reduce the blocking artifact and memory demand. The Embedded Zero tree Wavelet (EZW subband coding algorithm is used in this proposed work for progressive image coding which achieves efficient bit rate reduction. The computational complexity of lower subband coding of EZW algorithm is reduced in this proposed work with a new integer based Orthogonal Polynomials transform coding. The normalization and mapping are done on the subband of the image for exploiting the subjective redundancy and the zero tree structure is obtained for EZW coding and so the computation complexity is greatly reduced in this proposed work. The experimental results of the proposed technique also show that the efficient bit rate reduction is achieved for both lossy and lossless compression when compared with existing techniques.
Half-integer flux quantum effect in cuprate superconductors - a probe of pairing symmetry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsuei, C.C.; Kirtley, J.R.; Gupta, A.; Sun, J.Z.; Moler, K.A.; Wang, J.H.
1996-01-01
Based on macroscopic quantum coherence effects arising from pair tunneling and flux quantization, a series of tricrystal experiments have been designed and carried out to test the order parameter symmetry in high-T c cuprate superconductors. By using a scanning SQUID microscope, we have directly and non-invasively observed the spontaneously generated half-integer flux quantum effect in controlled-orientation tricrystal cuprate superconducting systems. The presence or absence of the half-integer flux quantum effect as a function of the tricrystal geometry allows us to prove that the order parameter symmetry in the YBCO and Tl2201 systems is consistent with that of the d x 2 -y 2 pair state. (orig.)
Heterotopic grey matter: Ct vs. MRI
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosten, N.; Schoerner, W.
1989-01-01
Heterotopic grey matter is a rare cause of seizures. While lesions appear suspicious on CT because of equidensity to cortex, MR imaging can establish the diagnosis by demonstrating same signal intensity of heterotopia and grey matter on T 1 - and T 2 -weighted as well as inversion-recovery sequences. (orig.) [de
Grey-Turner's sign in sclerosing peritonitis
Stouthard, J. M.; Krediet, R. T.; Arisz, L.
1989-01-01
A 41-year-old CAPD patient developed Grey-Turner's sign during the course of bacterial peritonitis due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. At the same time a diagnosis of sclerosing peritonitis was made by CT-scanning of the abdomen. We think that Grey-Turner's flank staining could either have been caused by
The Effects of Meditation on Grey Matter Atrophy and Neurodegeneration: A Systematic Review.
Last, Nicole; Tufts, Emily; Auger, Leslie E
2017-01-01
The present systematic review is based on the premise that a variety of neurodegenerative diseases are accompanied by grey matter atrophy in the brain and meditation may impact this. Given that age is a major risk factor for many of these progressive and neurodegenerative diseases and that the percentage of the population over the age of 65 is quickly increasing, there is an obvious need for prompt treatment and prevention advances in research. As there is currently no cure for Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases, many are seeking non-pharmacological treatment options in attempts to offset the disease-related cognitive and functional declines. On the basis of a growing body of research suggesting that meditation is effective in increasing grey matter volume in healthy participants, this paper systematically reviewed the literature regarding the effects of meditation on restoring grey matter volume in healthy individuals and those affected by neurodegeneration. This review searched PubMed, CINAHL, and APA PsycNET to identify original studies that included MRI imaging to measure grey matter volume in meditators and post-mindfulness-based intervention participants compared to controls. Thirteen studies were considered eligible for review and involved a wide variety of meditation techniques and included participants with and without cognitive impairment. All studies reported significant increases in grey matter volume in the meditators/intervention group, albeit in assorted regions of the brain. Limited research exists on the mechanisms through which meditation affects disease-related neurodegeneration, but preliminary evidence suggests that it may offset grey matter atrophy.
Investigating Integer Restrictions in Linear Programming
Edwards, Thomas G.; Chelst, Kenneth R.; Principato, Angela M.; Wilhelm, Thad L.
2015-01-01
Linear programming (LP) is an application of graphing linear systems that appears in many Algebra 2 textbooks. Although not explicitly mentioned in the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics, linear programming blends seamlessly into modeling with mathematics, the fourth Standard for Mathematical Practice (CCSSI 2010, p. 7). In solving a…
Organic matter and heavy metals in grey-water sludge | Eriksson ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Grey-water intended for non-potable reuse is being intensively studied, but little attention has been given to the associated solid fraction, the grey-water sludge. In this study grey-water sludge originating from bathroom grey-water has been screened with respect to organic matter; particles; short-chain fatty alcohols and ...
Modelling the Heat Consumption in District Heating Systems using a Grey-box approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Madsen, Henrik
2006-01-01
identification of an overall model structure followed by data-based modelling, whereby the details of the model are identified. This approach is sometimes called grey-box modelling, but the specific approach used here does not require states to be specified. Overall, the paper demonstrates the power of the grey......-box approach. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....
A program package for solving linear optimization problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horikami, Kunihiko; Fujimura, Toichiro; Nakahara, Yasuaki
1980-09-01
Seven computer programs for the solution of linear, integer and quadratic programming (four programs for linear programming, one for integer programming and two for quadratic programming) have been prepared and tested on FACOM M200 computer, and auxiliary programs have been written to make it easy to use the optimization program package. The characteristics of each program are explained and the detailed input/output descriptions are given in order to let users know how to use them. (author)
A 3-D radiation model for non-grey gases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selcuk, Nevin; Doner, Nimeti
2009-01-01
A three-dimensional radiation code based on method of lines (MOL) solution of discrete ordinates method (DOM) coupled with spectral line-based weighted sum of grey gases (SLW) model for radiative heat transfer in non-grey absorbing-emitting media for use in conjunction with a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code based on the same approach was developed. The code was applied to three test problems: two containing isothermal homogenous/non-homogenous water vapor and one non-isothermal water vapor/carbon dioxide mixture. Predictive accuracy of the code was evaluated by benchmarking its steady-state predictions against accurate results, calculated by ray tracing method with statistical narrow band model, available in the literature. Comparative testing with solutions of other methods is also provided. Comparisons reveal that MOL solution of DOM with SLW model provides accurate solutions for radiative heat fluxes and source terms and can be used with confidence in conjunction with CFD codes based on MOL
Population transfer HMQC for half-integer quadrupolar nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Qiang; Xu, Jun; Feng, Ningdong; Deng, Feng; Li, Yixuan; Trébosc, Julien; Lafon, Olivier; Hu, Bingwen; Chen, Qun; Amoureux, Jean-Paul
2015-01-01
This work presents a detailed analysis of a recently proposed nuclear magnetic resonance method [Wang et al., Chem. Commun. 49(59), 6653-6655 (2013)] for accelerating heteronuclear coherence transfers involving half-integer spin quadrupolar nuclei by manipulating their satellite transitions. This method, called Population Transfer Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Correlation (PT-HMQC), is investigated in details by combining theoretical analyses, numerical simulations, and experimental investigations. We find that compared to instant inversion or instant saturation, continuous saturation is the most practical strategy to accelerate coherence transfers on half-integer quadrupolar nuclei. We further demonstrate that this strategy is efficient to enhance the sensitivity of J-mediated heteronuclear correlation experiments between two half-integer quadrupolar isotopes (e.g., 27 Al- 17 O). In this case, the build-up is strongly affected by relaxation for small T 2 ′ and J coupling values, and shortening the mixing time makes a huge signal enhancement. Moreover, this concept of population transfer can also be applied to dipolar-mediated HMQC experiments. Indeed, on the AlPO 4 -14 sample, one still observes experimentally a 2-fold shortening of the optimum mixing time albeit with no significant signal gain in the 31 P-( 27 Al) experiments
The 'grey' assessment practice of IA screening
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bidstrup, Morten
2017-01-01
Research focusing on the practices surrounding screening in Impact Assessment (IA) is limited. Yet, it has been found that development proposals sometimes are adjusted through an informal dialog with IA practitioners prior to or during screening. Such practice is often referred to as ‘grey IA......’ in Denmark. This article explores the prevalence, influence and applied rationale of grey IA. Through a questionnaire, data was collected from 121 IA practitioners working within the fields of environmental impact assessment and strategic environmental assessment. It was found that grey IA is a common...... practice, which influences the outcomes of formal screening procedures through consideration of impacts on neighbours and spatial zones of protection. Grey IA is to some extent motivated by the opportunity to save the resources required for full-scale IA, but an additional ‘green’ rationale also exists...
Application of Grey Theory in Operator Management
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, Hong
2011-01-01
Scientific and reasonable operator management is the basis of nuclear security. It was paid more attention after the three-mile island accident. The prediction of operators' basic behavior parameters is the premise and foundation of scientific and reasonable operator management. Grey theory happens to solve the dilemma encountered in prediction and decision-making of operator behavior in operator management of NPP. The procedure is divided into two steps: according to the history record of operators' behavior parameter, a differential equation model using grey theory is set up to predict the future behavior of operators and use grey theory to make decision for operator management. The calculation result is helpful for operator management and also useful for operators to find their shortcoming. Grey theory using in the study provides a new idea and method for future operator management in NPP
Baran, Richard; Northen, Trent R
2013-10-15
Untargeted metabolite profiling using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled via electrospray ionization is a powerful tool for the discovery of novel natural products, metabolic capabilities, and biomarkers. However, the elucidation of the identities of uncharacterized metabolites from spectral features remains challenging. A critical step in the metabolite identification workflow is the assignment of redundant spectral features (adducts, fragments, multimers) and calculation of the underlying chemical formula. Inspection of the data by experts using computational tools solving partial problems (e.g., chemical formula calculation for individual ions) can be performed to disambiguate alternative solutions and provide reliable results. However, manual curation is tedious and not readily scalable or standardized. Here we describe an automated procedure for the robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming optimization (RAMSI). Chemical rules among related ions are expressed as linear constraints and both the spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation are performed in a single optimization step. This approach is unbiased in that it does not require predefined sets of neutral losses and positive and negative polarity spectra can be combined in a single optimization. The procedure was evaluated with 30 experimental mass spectra and was found to effectively identify the protonated or deprotonated molecule ([M + H](+) or [M - H](-)) while being robust to the presence of background ions. RAMSI provides a much-needed standardized tool for interpreting ions for subsequent identification in untargeted metabolomics workflows.
Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films.
Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
2015-08-25
The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.
Spinal cord grey matter segmentation challenge.
Prados, Ferran; Ashburner, John; Blaiotta, Claudia; Brosch, Tom; Carballido-Gamio, Julio; Cardoso, Manuel Jorge; Conrad, Benjamin N; Datta, Esha; Dávid, Gergely; Leener, Benjamin De; Dupont, Sara M; Freund, Patrick; Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M Gandini; Grussu, Francesco; Henry, Roland; Landman, Bennett A; Ljungberg, Emil; Lyttle, Bailey; Ourselin, Sebastien; Papinutto, Nico; Saporito, Salvatore; Schlaeger, Regina; Smith, Seth A; Summers, Paul; Tam, Roger; Yiannakas, Marios C; Zhu, Alyssa; Cohen-Adad, Julien
2017-05-15
An important image processing step in spinal cord magnetic resonance imaging is the ability to reliably and accurately segment grey and white matter for tissue specific analysis. There are several semi- or fully-automated segmentation methods for cervical cord cross-sectional area measurement with an excellent performance close or equal to the manual segmentation. However, grey matter segmentation is still challenging due to small cross-sectional size and shape, and active research is being conducted by several groups around the world in this field. Therefore a grey matter spinal cord segmentation challenge was organised to test different capabilities of various methods using the same multi-centre and multi-vendor dataset acquired with distinct 3D gradient-echo sequences. This challenge aimed to characterize the state-of-the-art in the field as well as identifying new opportunities for future improvements. Six different spinal cord grey matter segmentation methods developed independently by various research groups across the world and their performance were compared to manual segmentation outcomes, the present gold-standard. All algorithms provided good overall results for detecting the grey matter butterfly, albeit with variable performance in certain quality-of-segmentation metrics. The data have been made publicly available and the challenge web site remains open to new submissions. No modifications were introduced to any of the presented methods as a result of this challenge for the purposes of this publication. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kong, Li; Herold, Christina J; Zöllner, Frank; Salat, David H; Lässer, Marc M; Schmid, Lena A; Fellhauer, Iven; Thomann, Philipp A; Essig, Marco; Schad, Lothar R; Erickson, Kirk I; Schröder, Johannes
2015-02-28
Grey matter volume and cortical thickness are the two most widely used measures for detecting grey matter morphometric changes in various diseases such as schizophrenia. However, these two measures only share partial overlapping regions in identifying morphometric changes. Few studies have investigated the contributions of the potential factors to the differences of grey matter volume and cortical thickness. To investigate this question, 3T magnetic resonance images from 22 patients with schizophrenia and 20 well-matched healthy controls were chosen for analyses. Grey matter volume and cortical thickness were measured by VBM and Freesurfer. Grey matter volume results were then rendered onto the surface template of Freesurfer to compare the differences from cortical thickness in anatomical locations. Discrepancy regions of the grey matter volume and thickness where grey matter volume significantly decreased but without corresponding evidence of cortical thinning involved the rostral middle frontal, precentral, lateral occipital and superior frontal gyri. Subsequent region-of-interest analysis demonstrated that changes in surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature accounted for the discrepancies. Our results suggest that the differences between grey matter volume and thickness could be jointly driven by surface area, grey/white matter intensity contrast and curvature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eroh, Guy D; Clayton, Fred C; Florell, Scott R; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chirife, Andrea; Marón, Carina F; Valenzuela, Luciano O; Campbell, Michael S; Seger, Jon; Rowntree, Victoria J; Leachman, Sancy A
2017-01-01
Southern right whales (SRWs, Eubalena australis) are polymorphic for an X-linked pigmentation pattern known as grey morphism. Most SRWs have completely black skin with white patches on their bellies and occasionally on their backs; these patches remain white as the whale ages. Grey morphs (previously referred to as partial albinos) appear mostly white at birth, with a splattering of rounded black marks; but as the whales age, the white skin gradually changes to a brownish grey color. The cellular and developmental bases of grey morphism are not understood. Here we describe cellular and ultrastructural features of grey-morph skin in relation to that of normal, wild-type skin. Melanocytes were identified histologically and counted, and melanosomes were measured using transmission electron microscopy. Grey-morph skin had fewer melanocytes when compared to wild-type skin, suggesting reduced melanocyte survival, migration, or proliferation in these whales. Grey-morph melanocytes had smaller melanosomes relative to wild-type skin, normal transport of melanosomes to surrounding keratinocytes, and normal localization of melanin granules above the keratinocyte nuclei. These findings indicate that SRW grey-morph pigmentation patterns are caused by reduced numbers of melanocytes in the skin, as well as by reduced amounts of melanin production and/or reduced sizes of mature melanosomes. Grey morphism is distinct from piebaldism and albinism found in other species, which are genetic pigmentation conditions resulting from the local absence of melanocytes, or the inability to synthesize melanin, respectively.
Application of Grey-TOPSIS approach to evaluate value chain performance of tea processing chains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Richard Nyaoga
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This study develops an effective method to measure value chain performance and rank them based on qualitative criteria and to determine the ranking order of the various forms of performance under study. This approach integrates the advantage of grey systems theory and TOPSIS to evaluate and rank value chain performance. Grey-TOPSIS approach has been applied to measure and rank the value chain performance of various firms. The results indicate that the proposed model is useful to facilitate multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM problem under the environment of uncertainty and vagueness. The model also provides an appropriate ranking order based on the available alternatives. The Grey-TOPSIS approach that will be useful to the managers to use for solving the similar type of decision-making problems in their firms in the future has been discussed. Even though, the problem of choosing a suitable performance option is often addressed in practice and research, very few studies are available in the literature of Grey-TOPSIS decision models. Also, Grey-TOPSIS model application in the tea processing firms is non-existence hence this study is the very first to apply this model in evaluating value chain performance in the tea processing firms.
Rain: A New Concurrent Process-Oriented Programming Language
Brown, Neil C.C.
2006-01-01
This paper details the design of a new concurrent process-oriented programming language, Rain. The language borrows heavily from occam-p and C++ to create a new language based on process-oriented programming, marrying channel-based communication, a clear division between statement and expression, and elements of functional programming. An expressive yet simple type system, coupled with templates, underpins the language. Modern features such as Unicode support and 64-bit integers are included ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Juan
2013-02-01
Full Text Available Soil infiltration is a key link of the natural water cycle process. Studies on soil permeability are conducive for water resources assessment and estimation, runoff regulation and management, soil erosion modeling, nonpoint and point source pollution of farmland, among other aspects. The unequal influence of rainfall duration, rainfall intensity, antecedent soil moisture, vegetation cover, vegetation type, and slope gradient on soil cumulative infiltration was studied under simulated rainfall and different underlying surfaces. We established a six factor-model of soil cumulative infiltration by the improved back propagation (BP-based artificial neural network algorithm with a momentum term and self-adjusting learning rate. Compared to the multiple nonlinear regression method, the stability and accuracy of the improved BP algorithm was better. Based on the improved BP model, the sensitive index of these six factors on soil cumulative infiltration was investigated. Secondly, the grey relational analysis method was used to individually study grey correlations among these six factors and soil cumulative infiltration. The results of the two methods were very similar. Rainfall duration was the most influential factor, followed by vegetation cover, vegetation type, rainfall intensity and antecedent soil moisture. The effect of slope gradient on soil cumulative infiltration was not significant.A infiltração da água no solo é um processo fundamental do ciclo natural de água. Estudos sobre a permeabilidade do solo contribuem para avaliar e estimar os recursos hídricos, a regulação e gestão de escoamento, a modelagem da erosão do solo e a poluição de origem difusa e de origem pontual de terras agrícolas, entre outros aspectos. A influência desigual da duração da chuva, a intensidade de precipitação pluvial, a umidade do solo, a cobertura vegetal, o tipo de vegetação e inclinação do terreno sobre a infiltração acumulada no solo foram
GreyGuide Portal and Repositories "Sharing knowledge as early as possible"
Biagioni, Stefania; Carlesi, Carlo; Barsotti, Alessia; Pardini, Andrea
2017-01-01
The GreyGuide - Repository and Guide to Good Practices and Resources in Grey Literature was launched in 2013 as a collaborative effort between GreyNet International and ISTI-CNR. It aims at ?. Offering information professionals, practitioners, and students common ground for good practices and resources in grey literature; ?. Providing support for all stakeholders working on Grey Literature related research issues; ?. Being consistent with recommendations made in the Pisa Declaration on Policy...
Risk Assessment of Nautical Navigational Environment Based on Grey Fixed Weight Cluster
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yanfei Tian
2017-06-01
Full Text Available In order to set up a mathematical model suitable for nautical navigational environment risk evaluation and systematically master the navigational environment risk characteristics of the Qiongzhou Strait in a quantitative way, a risk assessment model with approach steps is set up based on the grey fixed weight cluster (GFWC. The evaluation index system is structured scientifically through both literature review and expert investigation. The relative weight of each index is designed to be obtained via fuzzy analytic hierarchy process (FAHP; Index membership degree of every grey class is proposed to be achieved by fuzzy statistics (FS to avoid the difficulty of building whiten weight functions. By using the model, nautical navigational environment risk of the Qiongzhou Strait is determined at a “moderate” level according to the principle of maximum membership degree. The comprehensive risk evaluation of the Qiongzhou Strait nautical navigational environment can provide theoretical reference for implementing targeted risk control measures. It shows that the constructed GFWC risk assessment model as well as the presented steps are workable in case of incomplete information. The proposed strategy can excavate the collected experts’ knowledge mathematically, quantify the weight of each index and risk level, and finally lead to a comprehensive risk evaluation result. Besides, the adoptions of probability and statistic theory, fuzzy theory, aiming at solving the bottlenecks in case of uncertainty, will give the model a better adaptability and executability.
Jiang, Wei; Zhou, Jianzhong; Zheng, Yang; Liu, Han
2017-11-01
Accurate degradation tendency measurement is vital for the secure operation of mechanical equipment. However, the existing techniques and methodologies for degradation measurement still face challenges, such as lack of appropriate degradation indicator, insufficient accuracy, and poor capability to track the data fluctuation. To solve these problems, a hybrid degradation tendency measurement method for mechanical equipment based on a moving window and Grey-Markov model is proposed in this paper. In the proposed method, a 1D normalized degradation index based on multi-feature fusion is designed to assess the extent of degradation. Subsequently, the moving window algorithm is integrated with the Grey-Markov model for the dynamic update of the model. Two key parameters, namely the step size and the number of states, contribute to the adaptive modeling and multi-step prediction. Finally, three types of combination prediction models are established to measure the degradation trend of equipment. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated with a case study on the health monitoring of turbine engines. Experimental results show that the proposed method has better performance, in terms of both measuring accuracy and data fluctuation tracing, in comparison with other conventional methods.
Grey water treatment in UASB reactor at ambient temperature.
Elmitwalli, T A; Shalabi, M; Wendland, C; Otterpohl, R
2007-01-01
In this paper, the feasibility of grey water treatment in a UASB reactor was investigated. The batch recirculation experiments showed that a maximum total-COD removal of 79% can be obtained in grey-water treatment in the UASB reactor. The continuous operational results of a UASB reactor treating grey water at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 20, 12 and 8 hours at ambient temperature (14-24 degrees C) showed that 31-41% of total COD was removed. These results were significantly higher than that achieved by a septic tank (11-14%), the most common system for grey water pre-treatment, at HRT of 2-3 days. The relatively lower removal of total COD in the UASB reactor was mainly due to a higher amount of colloidal COD in the grey water, as compared to that reported in domestic wastewater. The grey water had a limited amount of nitrogen, which was mainly in particulate form (80-90%). The UASB reactor removed 24-36% and 10-24% of total nitrogen and total phosphorus, respectively, in the grey water, due to particulate nutrients removal by physical entrapment and sedimentation. The sludge characteristics of the UASB reactor showed that the system had stable performance and the recommended HRT for the reactor is 12 hours.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Tao; Su Guanghui; Liao Yixiang; Zhang Weizhong; Qiu Suizheng; Jia Dounan
1999-12-01
Using grey systems theory and experimental data obtained from sodium boiling test loop in China, grey mutual analysis is done to some parameters influencing sodium CHF. The results of CHF are predicted by using GM (1,1) model. The GM(1,h) model is made up for creating CHF model. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data
COMPUTING VERTICES OF INTEGER PARTITION POLYTOPES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. S. Vroublevski
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The paper describes a method of generating vertices of the polytopes of integer partitions that was used by the authors to calculate all vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes for all n ≤ 105 and all knapsack partitions of n ≤ 165. The method avoids generating all partitions of n. The vertices are determined with the help of sufficient and necessary conditions; in the hard cases, the well-known program Polymake is used. Some computational aspects are exposed in more detail. These are the algorithm for checking the criterion that characterizes partitions that are convex combinations of two other partitions; the way of using two combinatorial operations that transform the known vertices to the new ones; and employing the Polymake to recognize a limited number (for small n of partitions that need three or more other partitions for being convexly expressed. We discuss the computational results on the numbers of vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes and some appealing problems these results give rise to.
Conference on Commutative rings, integer-valued polynomials and polynomial functions
Frisch, Sophie; Glaz, Sarah; Commutative Algebra : Recent Advances in Commutative Rings, Integer-Valued Polynomials, and Polynomial Functions
2014-01-01
This volume presents a multi-dimensional collection of articles highlighting recent developments in commutative algebra. It also includes an extensive bibliography and lists a substantial number of open problems that point to future directions of research in the represented subfields. The contributions cover areas in commutative algebra that have flourished in the last few decades and are not yet well represented in book form. Highlighted topics and research methods include Noetherian and non- Noetherian ring theory as well as integer-valued polynomials and functions. Specific topics include: · Homological dimensions of Prüfer-like rings · Quasi complete rings · Total graphs of rings · Properties of prime ideals over various rings · Bases for integer-valued polynomials · Boolean subrings · The portable property of domains · Probabilistic topics in Intn(D) · Closure operations in Zariski-Riemann spaces of valuation domains · Stability of do...
Elasticity of fractal materials using the continuum model with non-integer dimensional space
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2015-01-01
Using a generalization of vector calculus for space with non-integer dimension, we consider elastic properties of fractal materials. Fractal materials are described by continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. A generalization of elasticity equations for non-integer dimensional space, and its solutions for the equilibrium case of fractal materials are suggested. Elasticity problems for fractal hollow ball and cylindrical fractal elastic pipe with inside and outside pressures, for rotating cylindrical fractal pipe, for gradient elasticity and thermoelasticity of fractal materials are solved.
Invenio: A Modern Digital Library for Grey Literature
Caffaro, Jerome
2010-01-01
Grey literature has historically played a key role for researchers in the field of High- Energy Physics (HEP). Consequently CERN (European Organization for Nuclear Research) as the world’s largest particle physics laboratory has always been facing the challenge of distributing and archiving grey material. Invenio, an open-source repository software, has been developed as part of CERN’s institutional repository strategy to answer these needs. In this document we describe how the particular context of grey literature within the HEP community shaped the development of Invenio. We focus on the strategies that have been established in order to process grey material within the software and we analyse how it is used in a real production environment, the CERN Document Server (CDS).
Differences in regional grey matter volumes in currently ill patients with anorexia nervosa.
Phillipou, Andrea; Rossell, Susan Lee; Gurvich, Caroline; Castle, David Jonathan; Abel, Larry Allen; Nibbs, Richard Grant; Hughes, Matthew Edward
2018-01-01
Neurobiological findings in anorexia nervosa (AN) are inconsistent, including differences in regional grey matter volumes. Methodological limitations often contribute to the inconsistencies reported. The aim of this study was to improve on these methodologies by utilising voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis with the use of diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL), in a relatively large group of individuals with AN. Twenty-six individuals with AN and 27 healthy controls underwent a T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan. AN participants were found to have reduced grey matter volumes in a number of areas including regions of the basal ganglia (including the ventral striatum), and parietal and temporal cortices. Body mass index (BMI) and global scores on the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) were also found to correlate with grey matter volumes in a region of the brainstem (including the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area) in AN, and predicted 56% of the variance in grey matter volumes in this area. The brain regions associated with grey matter reductions in AN are consistent with regions responsible for cognitive deficits associated with the illness including anhedonia, deficits in affect perception and saccadic eye movement abnormalities. Overall, the findings suggest reduced grey matter volumes in AN that are associated with eating disorder symptomatology. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
A note on number fields having reciprocal integer generators | Zaïmi ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
We prove that a totally complex algebraic number field K; having a conjugate which is not closed under complex conjugation, can be generated by a reciprocal integer, when the Galois group of its normal closure is contained in the hyperoctahedral group Bdeg(K)/2. Keywords: Reciprocal integers, unit primitive elements, ...
Predecessor queries in dynamic integer sets
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting
1997-01-01
We consider the problem of maintaining a set of n integers in the range 0.2w–1 under the operations of insertion, deletion, predecessor queries, minimum queries and maximum queries on a unit cost RAM with word size w bits. Let f (n) be an arbitrary nondecreasing smooth function satisfying n...
Vector calculus in non-integer dimensional space and its applications to fractal media
Tarasov, Vasily E.
2015-02-01
We suggest a generalization of vector calculus for the case of non-integer dimensional space. The first and second orders operations such as gradient, divergence, the scalar and vector Laplace operators for non-integer dimensional space are defined. For simplification we consider scalar and vector fields that are independent of angles. We formulate a generalization of vector calculus for rotationally covariant scalar and vector functions. This generalization allows us to describe fractal media and materials in the framework of continuum models with non-integer dimensional space. As examples of application of the suggested calculus, we consider elasticity of fractal materials (fractal hollow ball and fractal cylindrical pipe with pressure inside and outside), steady distribution of heat in fractal media, electric field of fractal charged cylinder. We solve the correspondent equations for non-integer dimensional space models.
Characterization and treatment of grey water : option for (re)use
Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.
2009-01-01
Addressing the issues of water shortage and appropriate sanitation in Jordan, domestic grey water treatment receives growing interest. Grey water comprises the domestic wastewater flows excluding waters associated with the toilet. The topics of concern for grey water are its characteristics,
Characterization and anaerobic biodegradability of grey water
Hernandez Leal, L.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.
2011-01-01
Grey water consists of the discharges from kitchen sinks, showers, baths, washing machines and hand basins. Thorough characterization of 192 time proportional samples of grey water from 32 houses was conducted over a period of 14 months. COD concentrations were 724 ± 150 mg L- 1, of which 34% was
Assembling and testing of laboratory scale grey water treatment system
Harju, Vilhelmiina
2010-01-01
Grey water management and reuse is slowly gaining importance in the management of water resources. The benefits of well organized grey water management is that it offers a tool for coping with water scarcity and reduces the amount of pollution to enter the hydrological cycle. Grey water management aims on using treated grey water in applications which do not require drinking water quality. These non-potable reuse applications include industrial processes, irrigation, toilet flushing and lau...
Bibliometric study of grey literature in core veterinary medical journals.
Pelzer, Nancy L; Wiese, William H
2003-10-01
Grey literature has been perceived by many as belonging to the primary sources of information and has become an accepted method of nonconventional communication in the sciences and medicine. Since little is known about the use and nature of grey literature in veterinary medicine, a systematic study was done to analyze and characterize the bibliographic citations appearing in twelve core veterinary journals. Citations from 2,159 articles published in twelve core veterinary journals in 2000 were analyzed to determine the portion of citations from grey literature. Those citations were further analyzed and categorized according to the type of publication. Citation analysis yielded 55,823 citations, of which 3,564 (6.38%) were considered to be grey literature. Four veterinary specialties, internal medicine, pathology, theriogenology, and microbiology, accounted for 70% of the total number of articles. Three small-animal clinical practice journals cited about 2.5-3% grey literature, less than half that of journals with basic research orientations, where results ranged from almost 6% to approximately 10% grey literature. Nearly 90% of the grey literature appeared as conferences, government publications, and corporate organization literature. The results corroborate other reported research that the incidence of grey literature is lower in medicine and biology than in some other fields, such as aeronautics and agriculture. As in other fields, use of the Internet and the Web has greatly expanded the communication process among veterinary professionals. The appearance of closed community email forums and specialized discussion groups within the veterinary profession is an example of what could become a new kind of grey literature.
Why children are not vaccinated: a review of the grey literature.
Favin, Michael; Steinglass, Robert; Fields, Rebecca; Banerjee, Kaushik; Sawhney, Monika
2012-12-01
In collaboration with WHO, IMMUNIZATION basics analyzed 126 documents from the global grey literature to identify reasons why eligible children had incomplete or no vaccinations. The main reasons for under-vaccination were related to immunization services and to parental knowledge and attitudes. The most frequently cited factors were: access to services, health staff attitudes and practices, reliability of services, false contraindications, parents' practical knowledge of vaccination, fear of side effects, conflicting priorities and parental beliefs. Some family demographic characteristics were strong, but underlying, risk factors for under-vaccination. Studies must be well designed to capture a complete picture of the simultaneous causes of under-vaccination and to avoid biased results. Although the grey literature contains studies of varying quality, it includes many well-designed studies. Every immunization program should strive to provide quality services that are accessible, convenient, reliable, friendly, affordable and acceptable, and should solicit feedback from families and community leaders. Every program should monitor missed and under-vaccinated children and assess and address the causes. Although global reviews, such as this one, can play a useful role in identifying key questions for local study, local enquiry and follow-up remain essential.
Linear Independence of -Logarithms over the Eisenstein Integers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Bundschuh
2010-01-01
Full Text Available For fixed complex with ||>1, the -logarithm is the meromorphic continuation of the series ∑>0/(−1,||1,≠,2,3,…. In 2004, Tachiya showed that this is true in the Subcase =ℚ, ∈ℤ, =−1, and the present authors extended this result to arbitrary integer from an imaginary quadratic number field , and provided a quantitative version. In this paper, the earlier method, in particular its arithmetical part, is further developed to answer the above question in the affirmative if is the Eisenstein number field √ℚ(−3, an integer from , and a primitive third root of unity. Under these conditions, the linear independence holds also for 1,(,(−1, and both results are quantitative.
Application of a non-integer Bessel uniform approximation to inelastic molecular collisions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Connor, J.N.L.; Mayne, H.R.
1979-01-01
A non-integer Bessel uniform approximation has been used to calculate transition probabilities for collinear atom-oscillator collisions. The collision systems used are a harmonic oscillator interacting via a Lennard-Jones potential and a Morse oscillator interacting via an exponential potential. Both classically allowed and classically forbidden transitions have been treated. The order of the Bessel function is chosen by a physical argument that makes use of information contained in the final-action initial-angle plot. Limitations of this procedure are discussed. It is shown that the non-integer Bessel approximation is accurate for elastic 0 → 0 collisions at high collision energies, where the integer Bessel approximation is inaccurate or inapplicable. (author)
Rivero, M J; Parsons, S A; Jeffrey, P; Pidou, M; Jefferson, B
2006-01-01
Urban water recycling is now becoming an important issue where water resources are becoming scarce. This paper looks at reusing grey water; the preference is treatment processes based on biological systems to remove the dissolved organic content. Here, an alternative process, photocatalysis is discussed as it is an attractive technology that could be well-suited for treating the recalcitrant organic compounds found in grey water. The photocatalytic process oxidises organic reactants at a catalyst surface in the presence of ultraviolet light. Given enough exposure time, organic compounds will be oxidized into CO2 and water. The best contact is achieved in a slurry reactor but a second step to separate and recover the catalyst is need. This paper discusses a new membrane chemical reactor (MCR) combining photocatalysis and microfiltration for grey water treatment.
Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models for Multivariate Integer-Valued Time-Series
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Catania, Leopoldo; Di Mari, Roberto
2018-01-01
We propose a new flexible dynamic model for multivariate nonnegative integer-valued time-series. Observations are assumed to depend on the realization of two additional unobserved integer-valued stochastic variables which control for the time-and cross-dependence of the data. An Expectation......-Maximization algorithm for maximum likelihood estimation of the model's parameters is derived. We provide conditional and unconditional (cross)-moments implied by the model, as well as the limiting distribution of the series. A Monte Carlo experiment investigates the finite sample properties of our estimation...
Bilevel programming problems theory, algorithms and applications to energy networks
Dempe, Stephan; Pérez-Valdés, Gerardo A; Kalashnykova, Nataliya; Kalashnikova, Nataliya
2015-01-01
This book describes recent theoretical findings relevant to bilevel programming in general, and in mixed-integer bilevel programming in particular. It describes recent applications in energy problems, such as the stochastic bilevel optimization approaches used in the natural gas industry. New algorithms for solving linear and mixed-integer bilevel programming problems are presented and explained.
Integer factoring and modular square roots
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Jeřábek, Emil
2016-01-01
Roč. 82, č. 2 (2016), s. 380-394 ISSN 0022-0000 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100190902; GA ČR GBP202/12/G061 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : integer factoring * quadratic residue * PPA Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.678, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022000015000768
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pedzisai Mazengenya
2018-02-01
Full Text Available In the current study, we examined for the first time, the potential for adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the Congo African grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus and Timneh grey parrot (Psittacus timneh using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, which labels proliferating cells, and doublecortin (DCX, which stains immature and migrating neurons. A similar distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was found throughout the brain of the Congo African grey and Timneh grey parrots, but minor differences were also observed. In both species of parrots, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, subventricular zone of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and the rhombencephalon. The olfactory bulb and telencephalic subdivisions exhibited a higher density of both PCNA and DCX immunoreactive cells than any other brain region. DCX immunoreactive staining was stronger in the telencephalon than in the subtelencephalic structures. There was evidence of proliferative hot spots in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricle in the Congo African grey parrots at rostral levels, whereas only the dorsal accumulation of proliferating cells was observed in the Timneh grey parrot. In most pallial regions the density of PCNA and DCX stained cells increased from rostral to caudal levels with the densest staining in the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL. The widespread distribution of PCNA and DCX in the brains of both parrot species suggest the importance of adult neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity during learning and adaptation to external environmental variations.
Mazengenya, Pedzisai; Bhagwandin, Adhil; Manger, Paul R; Ihunwo, Amadi O
2018-01-01
In the current study, we examined for the first time, the potential for adult neurogenesis throughout the brain of the Congo African grey parrot ( Psittacus erithacus ) and Timneh grey parrot ( Psittacus timneh ) using immunohistochemistry for the endogenous markers proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which labels proliferating cells, and doublecortin (DCX), which stains immature and migrating neurons. A similar distribution of PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was found throughout the brain of the Congo African grey and Timneh grey parrots, but minor differences were also observed. In both species of parrots, PCNA and DCX immunoreactivity was observed in the olfactory bulbs, subventricular zone of the lateral wall of the lateral ventricle, telencephalic subdivisions of the pallium and subpallium, diencephalon, mesencephalon and the rhombencephalon. The olfactory bulb and telencephalic subdivisions exhibited a higher density of both PCNA and DCX immunoreactive cells than any other brain region. DCX immunoreactive staining was stronger in the telencephalon than in the subtelencephalic structures. There was evidence of proliferative hot spots in the dorsal and ventral poles of the lateral ventricle in the Congo African grey parrots at rostral levels, whereas only the dorsal accumulation of proliferating cells was observed in the Timneh grey parrot. In most pallial regions the density of PCNA and DCX stained cells increased from rostral to caudal levels with the densest staining in the nidopallium caudolaterale (NCL). The widespread distribution of PCNA and DCX in the brains of both parrot species suggest the importance of adult neurogenesis and neuronal plasticity during learning and adaptation to external environmental variations.
Prediction Model of Interval Grey Numbers with a Real Parameter and Its Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Zeng
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Grey prediction models have become common methods which are widely employed to solve the problems with “small examples and poor information.” However, modeling objects of existing grey prediction models are limited to the homogenous data sequences which only contain the same data type. This paper studies the methodology of building prediction models of interval grey numbers that are grey heterogeneous data sequence, with a real parameter. Firstly, the position of the real parameter in an interval grey number sequence is discussed, and the real number is expanded into an interval grey number by adopting the method of grey generation. On this basis, a prediction model of interval grey number with a real parameter is deduced and built. Finally, this novel model is successfully applied to forecast the concentration of organic pollutant DDT in the atmosphere. The analysis and research results in this paper extend the object of grey prediction from homogenous data sequence to grey heterogeneous data sequence. Those research findings are of positive significance in terms of enriching and improving the theory system of grey prediction models.
Searching for Grey Literature for Systematic Reviews: Challenges and Benefits
Mahood, Quenby; Van Eerd, Dwayne; Irvin, Emma
2014-01-01
There is ongoing interest in including grey literature in systematic reviews. Including grey literature can broaden the scope to more relevant studies, thereby providing a more complete view of available evidence. Searching for grey literature can be challenging despite greater access through the Internet, search engines and online bibliographic…
Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Lamb, Lisa L.; Philipp, Randolph A.; Whitacre, Ian; Schappelle, Bonnie P.; Lewis, Melinda L.
2014-01-01
We identify and document 3 cognitive obstacles, 3 cognitive affordances, and 1 type of integer understanding that can function as either an obstacle or affordance for learners while they extend their numeric domains from whole numbers to include negative integers. In particular, we highlight 2 key subsets of integer reasoning: understanding or…
THE PHENOMENON OF HALF-INTEGER SPIN, QUATERNIONS, AND PAULI MATRICES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
FERNANDO R. GONZÁLEZ DÍAZ
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper the phenomenon of half-integer spin exemplification Paul AM Dirac made with a pair of scissors, an elastic cord and chair play. Four examples in which the same phenomenon appears and the algebraic structure of quaternions is related to one of the examples are described. Mathematical proof of the phenomenon using known topological and algebraic results are explained. The basic results of algebraic structures are described quaternions H , and an intrinsic relationship with the phenomenon half-integer spin and the Pauli matrices is established.
Using atmospheric pressure plasma treatment for treating grey cotton fabric.
Kan, Chi-Wai; Lam, Chui-Fung; Chan, Chee-Kooi; Ng, Sun-Pui
2014-02-15
Conventional wet treatment, desizing, scouring and bleaching, for grey cotton fabric involves the use of high water, chemical and energy consumption which may not be considered as a clean process. This study aims to investigate the efficiency of the atmospheric pressure plasma (APP) treatment on treating grey cotton fabric when compared with the conventional wet treatment. Grey cotton fabrics were treated with different combinations of plasma parameters with helium and oxygen gases and also through conventional desizing, scouring and bleaching processes in order to obtain comparable results. The results obtained from wicking and water drop tests showed that wettability of grey cotton fabrics was greatly improved after plasma treatment and yielded better results than conventional desizing and scouring. The weight reduction of plasma treated grey cotton fabrics revealed that plasma treatment can help remove sizing materials and impurities. Chemical and morphological changes in plasma treated samples were analysed by FTIR and SEM, respectively. Finally, dyeability of the plasma treated and conventional wet treated grey cotton fabrics was compared and the results showed that similar dyeing results were obtained. This can prove that plasma treatment would be another choice for treating grey cotton fabrics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Contrast between white and grey matter: MRI appearance with ageing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magnaldi, S.; Ukmar, M.; Vasciaveo, A.; Longo, R.; Pozzi-Mucelli, R.S.
1993-01-01
MRI contrast between white and grey matter appears to be higher in young normal subjects than in older patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible relationships between these changes in contrast and ageing. It consisted of two parts. In the first part we retrospectively evaluated 140 MRI brain examinations of healthy subjects, 20 per decade (age range 20-90 years), in whom the contrast was subjectively scored. In the second part we prospectively measured the actual T1, spin density (SD) and T2 values of white and grey matter in another 22 healthy subjects (age range 20-80 years). In the first group of subjects a progressive decrease in white/grey matter contrast was observed with ageing. In the second group of subjects the T1, SD and T2 values of white matter were always shorter than those of grey matter. There is a close relation among T1, SD and T2 values of white and grey matter with ageing. We suggest that there is a progressive loss of white/grey matter contrast with ageing. Such a phenomenon is possibly due to an increased water content in the white matter and the progressive neuronal loss in the grey matter that occurs with age. (orig.)
Alcohol consumption during adolescence is associated with reduced grey matter volumes.
Heikkinen, Noora; Niskanen, Eini; Könönen, Mervi; Tolmunen, Tommi; Kekkonen, Virve; Kivimäki, Petri; Tanila, Heikki; Laukkanen, Eila; Vanninen, Ritva
2017-04-01
Cognitive impairment has been associated with excessive alcohol use, but its neural basis is poorly understood. Chronic excessive alcohol use in adolescence may lead to neuronal loss and volumetric changes in the brain. Our objective was to compare the grey matter volumes of heavy- and light-drinking adolescents. This was a longitudinal study: heavy-drinking adolescents without an alcohol use disorder and their light-drinking controls were followed-up for 10 years using questionnaires at three time-points. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted at the last time-point. The area near Kuopio University Hospital, Finland. The 62 participants were aged 22-28 years and included 35 alcohol users and 27 controls who had been followed-up for approximately 10 years. Alcohol use was measured by the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C at three time-points during 10 years. Participants were selected based on their AUDIT-C score. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted at the last time-point. Grey matter volume was determined and compared between heavy- and light-drinking groups using voxel-based morphometry on three-dimensional T1-weighted magnetic resonance images using predefined regions of interest and a threshold of P Grey matter volumes were significantly smaller among heavy-drinking participants in the bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, right orbitofrontal and frontopolar cortex, right superior temporal gyrus and right insular cortex compared to the control group (P grey matter. Moreover, the structural changes detected in the insula of alcohol users may reflect a reduced sensitivity to alcohol's negative subjective effects. © 2016 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Grey matter correlates of susceptibility to scams in community-dwelling older adults.
Duke Han, S; Boyle, Patricia A; Yu, Lei; Arfanakis, Konstantinos; James, Bryan D; Fleischman, Debra A; Bennett, David A
2016-06-01
Susceptibility to scams is a significant issue among older adults, even among those with intact cognition. Age-related changes in brain macrostructure may be associated with susceptibility to scams; however, this has yet to be explored. Based on previous work implicating frontal and temporal lobe functioning as important in decision making, we tested the hypothesis that susceptibility to scams is associated with smaller grey matter volume in frontal and temporal lobe regions in a large community-dwelling cohort of non-demented older adults. Participants (N = 327, mean age = 81.55, mean education = 15.30, 78.9 % female) completed a self-report measure used to assess susceptibility to scams and an MRI brain scan. Results indicated an inverse association between overall grey matter and susceptibility to scams in models adjusted for age, education, and sex; and in models further adjusted for cognitive function. No significant associations were observed for white matter, cerebrospinal fluid, or total brain volume. Models adjusted for age, education, and sex revealed seven clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, left middle temporal, left orbitofrontal, right ventromedial prefrontal, right middle temporal, right precuneus, and right dorsolateral prefrontal regions. In models further adjusted for cognitive function, results revealed three significant clusters showing smaller grey matter in the right parahippocampal/hippocampal/fusiform, right hippocampal, and right middle temporal regions. Lower grey matter concentration in specific brain regions may be associated with susceptibility to scams, even after adjusting for cognitive ability. Future research is needed to determine whether grey matter reductions in these regions may be a biomarker for susceptibility to scams in old age.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Binh, Do Quang [University of Technical Education Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Huy, Ngo Quang [University of Industry Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Hai, Nguyen Hoang [Centre for Research and Development of Radiation Technology, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)
2014-12-15
This paper presents a new approach based on a binary mixed integer coded genetic algorithm in conjunction with the weighted sum method for multi-objective optimization of fuel loading patterns for nuclear research reactors. The proposed genetic algorithm works with two types of chromosomes: binary and integer chromosomes, and consists of two types of genetic operators: one working on binary chromosomes and the other working on integer chromosomes. The algorithm automatically searches for the most suitable weighting factors of the weighting function and the optimal fuel loading patterns in the search process. Illustrative calculations are implemented for a research reactor type TRIGA MARK II loaded with the Russian VVR-M2 fuels. Results show that the proposed genetic algorithm can successfully search for both the best weighting factors and a set of approximate optimal loading patterns that maximize the effective multiplication factor and minimize the power peaking factor while satisfying operational and safety constraints for the research reactor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Binh, Do Quang; Huy, Ngo Quang; Hai, Nguyen Hoang
2014-01-01
This paper presents a new approach based on a binary mixed integer coded genetic algorithm in conjunction with the weighted sum method for multi-objective optimization of fuel loading patterns for nuclear research reactors. The proposed genetic algorithm works with two types of chromosomes: binary and integer chromosomes, and consists of two types of genetic operators: one working on binary chromosomes and the other working on integer chromosomes. The algorithm automatically searches for the most suitable weighting factors of the weighting function and the optimal fuel loading patterns in the search process. Illustrative calculations are implemented for a research reactor type TRIGA MARK II loaded with the Russian VVR-M2 fuels. Results show that the proposed genetic algorithm can successfully search for both the best weighting factors and a set of approximate optimal loading patterns that maximize the effective multiplication factor and minimize the power peaking factor while satisfying operational and safety constraints for the research reactor.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kanda, Tomonori; Uemura, Takafumi; Miyamoto, Naokazu; Yoshikawa, Toshiki; Kono, Atsushi K. [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Ishii, Kazunari [Hyogo Brain and Heart Center, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Division of Neuroimaging Research, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Mori, Etsuro [Hyogo Institute for Aging Brain and Cognitive Disorders, Division of Clinical Neurosciences, Himeji, Hyogo (Japan); Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Behavioral Neurology and Cognitive Neuroscience, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)
2008-12-15
The aim of this study was to investigate the regional differences between the morphologic and functional changes in the same patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) using statistical parametric mapping and voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Thirteen FTD patients (mean age, 64.9 years old; mean MMSE score, 17.7), 20 sex-matched Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (mean age, 65.0 years old; mean MMSE score, 17.5), and 20 normal volunteers (mean age, 65.2 years old; mean MMSE score, 29.0) underwent both [{sup 18}F]FDG positron emission tomography and three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo MRI. Statistical parametric mapping was used to conduct a VBM analysis of the morphologic data, which were compared voxel by voxel with the results of a similar analysis of glucose metabolic data. FTD patients showed decreased grey matter volume and decreased glucose metabolism in the frontal lobe and anterior temporal lobe. In addition, there was a clear asymmetry in grey matter volume in FTD patients by the VBM analysis while the glucose metabolic data showed little asymmetry. In AD patients, glucose metabolic reduction occurred in the bilateral posterior cingulate gyri and parietal lobules while grey matter density decreased the least in the same patients. In FTD, metabolic and morphologic changes occur in the bilateral frontal lobe and temporal lobe with a limited asymmetry whereas there was considerable discordance in the AD group. (orig.)
Premature hair greying may predict reduced bone mineral density in Graves' disease.
LENUS (Irish Health Repository)
Leary, A C
2012-02-03
BACKGROUND: Premature hair greying has been associated with low bone mineral density (BMD), and it may be more frequent in Graves\\' disease. AIMS: To determine whether premature greying is associated with reduced BMD in women with Graves\\' disease and in control women, and to examine whether premature greying is more common in Graves\\' disease. METHODS: Premature greying (> 50% grey by 40 years) and BMD were determined in 44 women with a history of Graves\\' disease and 133 female controls referred for routine BMD measurement. Exclusion criteria included diseases or drugs known to affect BMD. RESULTS: Mean Z and T scores at the lumbar spine were significantly lower (P < 0.04) in subjects with premature greying than in those not prematurely grey among women with Graves\\' disease, but not among control women. Multiple regression confirmed this difference between Graves\\' and control women (P = 0.041). There were no differences at other measurement sites. Of Graves\\' patients, 36% were prematurely grey compared with 25% of control women (P = 0.14). CONCLUSION: Premature greying may be a weak marker for reduced BMD in women with a history of Graves\\' disease, but it is not a marker in normal women.
A Grey Fuzzy Logic Approach for Cotton Fibre Selection
Chakraborty, Shankar; Das, Partha Protim; Kumar, Vidyapati
2017-06-01
It is a well known fact that the quality of ring spun yarn predominantly depends on various physical properties of cotton fibre. Any variation in these fibre properties may affect the strength and unevenness of the final yarn. Thus, so as to achieve the desired yarn quality and characteristics, it becomes imperative for the spinning industry personnel to identify the most suitable cotton fibre from a set of feasible alternatives in presence of several conflicting properties/attributes. This cotton fibre selection process can be modelled as a Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problem. In this paper, a grey fuzzy logic-based approach is proposed for selection of the most apposite cotton fibre from 17 alternatives evaluated based on six important fibre properties. It is observed that the preference order of the top-ranked cotton fibres derived using the grey fuzzy logic approach closely matches with that attained by the past researchers which proves the application potentiality of this method in solving varying MCDM problems in textile industries.
Grey scale, the 'crispening effect', and perceptual linearization
Belaïd, N.; Martens, J.B.
1998-01-01
One way of optimizing a display is to maximize the number of distinguishable grey levels, which in turn is equivalent to perceptually linearizing the display. Perceptual linearization implies that equal steps in grey value evoke equal steps in brightness sensation. The key to perceptual
Grey matter volume in healthy and epileptic beagles using voxel-based morphometry – a pilot study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lisa Frank
2018-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background One of the most common chronic neurological disorders in dogs is idiopathic epilepsy (IE diagnosed as epilepsy without structural changes in the brain. In the current study the hypothesis should be proven that subtle grey matter changes occur in epileptic dogs. Therefore, magnetic resonance (MR images of one dog breed (Beagles were used to obtain an approximately uniform brain shape. Local differences in grey matter volume (GMV were compared between 5 healthy Beagles and 10 Beagles with spontaneously recurrent seizures (5 dogs with IE and 5 dogs with structural epilepsy (SE, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM. T1W images of all dogs were prepared using Amira 6.3.0 for brain extraction, FSL 4.1.8 for registration and SPM12 for realignment. After creation of tissue probability maps of cerebrospinal fluid, grey and white matter from control images to segment all extracted brains, GM templates for each group were constructed to normalize brain images for parametric statistical analysis, which was achieved using SPM12. Results Epileptic Beagles (IE and SE Beagles displayed statistically significant reduced GMV in olfactory bulb, cingulate gyrus, hippocampus and cortex, especially in temporal and occipital lobes. Beagles with IE showed statistically significant decreased GMV in olfactory bulb, cortex of parietal and temporal lobe, hippocampus and cingulate gyrus, Beagles with SE mild statistically significant GMV reduction in temporal lobe (p < 0.05; family- wise error correction. Conclusion These results suggest that, as reported in epileptic humans, focal reduction in GMV also occurs in epileptic dogs. Furthermore, the current study shows that VBM analysis represents an excellent method to detect GMV differences of the brain between a healthy dog group and dogs with epileptic syndrome, when MR images of one breed are used.
Modification of grey scale in computer tomographic images
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hemmingsson, A.; Jung, B.
1980-01-01
Optimum perception of minute but relevant attenuation differences in CT images often requires display window settings so narrow that a considerable fraction of the image appears completely black or white and consequently without structure. In order to improve the display characteristics two principles of grey scale modification are presented. In one method the pixel contents are displayed unchanged within a selectable attenuation band but moved towards the limits of the band for pixels that are outside it. In the other the grey scale is arranged to a constant number of pixels per grey scale interval. (Auth.)
An n -material thresholding method for improving integerness of solutions in topology optimization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Watts, Seth; Engineering); Tortorelli, Daniel A.; Engineering)
2016-01-01
It is common in solving topology optimization problems to replace an integer-valued characteristic function design field with the material volume fraction field, a real-valued approximation of the design field that permits "fictitious" mixtures of materials during intermediate iterations in the optimization process. This is reasonable so long as one can interpolate properties for such materials and so long as the final design is integer valued. For this purpose, we present a method for smoothly thresholding the volume fractions of an arbitrary number of material phases which specify the design. This method is trivial for two-material design problems, for example, the canonical topology design problem of specifying the presence or absence of a single material within a domain, but it becomes more complex when three or more materials are used, as often occurs in material design problems. We take advantage of the similarity in properties between the volume fractions and the barycentric coordinates on a simplex to derive a thresholding, method which is applicable to an arbitrary number of materials. As we show in a sensitivity analysis, this method has smooth derivatives, allowing it to be used in gradient-based optimization algorithms. Finally, we present results, which show synergistic effects when used with Solid Isotropic Material with Penalty and Rational Approximation of Material Properties material interpolation functions, popular methods of ensuring integerness of solutions.
Li, Shuliang; Meng, Wei; Xie, Yufeng
2017-12-23
With the rapid development of the Yangtze River economic belt, the amount of waste-sewage water discharged into the Yangtze River basin increases sharply year by year, which has impeded the sustainable development of the Yangtze River basin. The water security along the Yangtze River basin is very important for China, It is something aboutwater security of roughly one-third of China's population and the sustainable development of the 19 provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions among the Yangtze River basin. Therefore, a scientific prediction of the amount of waste-sewage water discharged into Yangtze River basin has a positive significance on sustainable development of industry belt along with Yangtze River basin. This paper builds the fractional DWSGM(1,1)(DWSGM(1,1) model is short for Discharge amount of Waste Sewage Grey Model for one order equation and one variable) model based on the fractional accumulating generation operator and fractional reducing operator, and calculates the optimal order of "r" by using particle swarm optimization(PSO)algorithm for solving the minimum average relative simulation error. Meanwhile, the simulation performance of DWSGM(1,1)model with the optimal fractional order is tested by comparing the simulation results of grey prediction models with different orders. Finally, the optimal fractional order DWSGM(1,1)grey model is applied to predict the amount of waste-sewage water discharged into the Yangtze River basin, and corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward through analyzing and comparing the prediction results. This paper has positive significance on enriching the fractional order modeling method of the grey system.
Wise, T; Radua, J; Via, E; Cardoner, N; Abe, O; Adams, T M; Amico, F; Cheng, Y; Cole, J H; de Azevedo Marques Périco, C; Dickstein, D P; Farrow, T F D; Frodl, T; Wagner, G; Gotlib, I H; Gruber, O; Ham, B J; Job, D E; Kempton, M J; Kim, M J; Koolschijn, P C M P; Malhi, G S; Mataix-Cols, D; McIntosh, A M; Nugent, A C; O'Brien, J T; Pezzoli, S; Phillips, M L; Sachdev, P S; Salvadore, G; Selvaraj, S; Stanfield, A C; Thomas, A J; van Tol, M J; van der Wee, N J A; Veltman, D J; Young, A H; Fu, C H; Cleare, A J; Arnone, D
2017-10-01
Finding robust brain substrates of mood disorders is an important target for research. The degree to which major depression (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are associated with common and/or distinct patterns of volumetric changes is nevertheless unclear. Furthermore, the extant literature is heterogeneous with respect to the nature of these changes. We report a meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) studies in MDD and BD. We identified studies published up to January 2015 that compared grey matter in MDD (50 data sets including 4101 individuals) and BD (36 data sets including 2407 individuals) using whole-brain VBM. We used statistical maps from the studies included where available and reported peak coordinates otherwise. Group comparisons and conjunction analyses identified regions in which the disorders showed common and distinct patterns of volumetric alteration. Both disorders were associated with lower grey-matter volume relative to healthy individuals in a number of areas. Conjunction analysis showed smaller volumes in both disorders in clusters in the dorsomedial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex, including the anterior cingulate cortex and bilateral insula. Group comparisons indicated that findings of smaller grey-matter volumes relative to controls in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and left hippocampus, along with cerebellar, temporal and parietal regions were more substantial in major depression. These results suggest that MDD and BD are characterised by both common and distinct patterns of grey-matter volume changes. This combination of differences and similarities has the potential to inform the development of diagnostic biomarkers for these conditions.
SUSTAINABILITY OF TURKISH GREY CATTLE IN ORGANIC SYSTEM
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Hülya HANOĞLU
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Beef consumption has significantly increased in the last fifty years as a response to the increase in population size, whereas the sustainability of production systems has begun to be questioned. Because the residues left in the animal feed additives used in conventional food production constitute major health problems in consumers. Therefore, an interest in organic farming methods based on natural grazing and feed production without the use of chemicals is increasing. One of the most important examples of organic beef production in Turkey is the project carried out in the villages of Ayvacık district in Çanakkale. This region has an ecological structure which does not allow an extensive production of culture cattle. The most important advantages of the Turkish grey cattle living in the pastures in the region covered with bushes are that they have less needs of shelter, they do not need supplementary feeding throughout the year and labor costs for their production for beef are low. Breeders in this region maintained a market price for their products by shifting to organic system and thus allowed the sustainable production of the Turkish grey cattle. In this study, Ayvacık Organic Beef Production Project which sets an example for the sustainability of Turkish grey cattle production by featuring its surplus values was evaluated.
Grey literature for development: Some case studies
Sen, B. (SHPT); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service
2007-01-01
Grey Literature refers to publications issued by government, academia, business, and industry, in both print and electronic formats, but not controlled by commercial publishing interests, and where publishing is not the primary business activity of the organization. Newsletters, reports, working papers, theses, government documents, bulletins, fact sheets, conference proceedings and other publications distributed free, available by subscription, or for sale comprises grey literature. Non-prof...
Connecting Archaeological Data and Grey Literature via Semantic Cross Search
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Douglas Tudhope
2011-07-01
Full Text Available Differing terminology and database structure hinders meaningful cross search of excavation datasets. Matching free text grey literature reports with datasets poses yet more challenges. Conventional search techniques are unable to cross search between archaeological datasets and Web-based grey literature. Results are reported from two AHRC funded research projects that investigated the use of semantic techniques to link digital archive databases, vocabularies and associated grey literature. STAR (Semantic Technologies for Archaeological Resources was a collaboration between the University of Glamorgan, Hypermedia Research Unit and English Heritage (EH. The main outcome is a research Demonstrator (available online, which cross searches over excavation datasets from different database schemas, including Raunds Roman, Raunds Prehistoric, Museum of London, Silchester Roman and Stanwick sampling. The system additionally cross searches over an extract of excavation reports from the OASIS index of grey literature, operated by the Archaeology Data Service (ADS. A conceptual framework provided by the CIDOC Conceptual Reference Model (CRM integrates the different database structures and the metadata automatically generated from the OASIS reports by natural language processing techniques. The methods employed for extracting semantic RDF representations from the datasets and the information extraction from grey literature are described. The STELLAR project provides freely available tools to reduce the costs of mapping and extracting data to semantic search systems such as the Demonstrator and to linked data representation generally. Detailed use scenarios (and a screen capture video provide a basis for a discussion of key issues, including cost-benefits, ontology modelling, mapping, terminology control, semantic implementation and information extraction issues. The scenarios show that semantic interoperability can be achieved by mapping and extracting
Winding numbers in homotopy theory from integers to reals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mekhfi, M.
1993-07-01
In Homotopy Theory (HT) we define paths on a given topological space. Closed paths prove to be construction elements of a group (the fundamental group) Π 1 and carry charges, the winding numbers. The charges are integers as they indicate how many times closed paths encircle a given hole (or set of holes). Open paths as they are defined in (HT) do not possess any groups structure and as such they are less useful in topology. In the present paper we enlarge the concept of a path in such a way that both types of paths do possess a group structure. In this broad sense we have two fundamental groups the Π i = Z group and the SO(2) group of rotations but the latter has the global property that there is no periodicity in the rotation angle. There is also two charge operators W and W λ whose eigenvalues are either integers or reals depending respectively on the paths being closed or open. Also the SO(2) group and the real charge operator W λ are not independently defined but directly related respectively to the Π i group and to the integer charge operator W. Thus well defined links can be established between seemingly different groups and charges. (author). 3 refs, 1 fig
Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis.
Eshaghi, Arman; Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Prados, Ferran; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga
2018-06-01
See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article.Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse-onset multiple
Progression of regional grey matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis
Marinescu, Razvan V; Young, Alexandra L; Firth, Nicholas C; Jorge Cardoso, M; Tur, Carmen; De Angelis, Floriana; Cawley, Niamh; Brownlee, Wallace J; De Stefano, Nicola; Laura Stromillo, M; Battaglini, Marco; Ruggieri, Serena; Gasperini, Claudio; Filippi, Massimo; Rocca, Maria A; Rovira, Alex; Sastre-Garriga, Jaume; Geurts, Jeroen J G; Vrenken, Hugo; Wottschel, Viktor; Leurs, Cyra E; Uitdehaag, Bernard; Pirpamer, Lukas; Enzinger, Christian; Ourselin, Sebastien; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A; Chard, Declan; Thompson, Alan J; Barkhof, Frederik; Alexander, Daniel C; Ciccarelli, Olga
2018-01-01
Abstract See Stankoff and Louapre (doi:10.1093/brain/awy114) for a scientific commentary on this article. Grey matter atrophy is present from the earliest stages of multiple sclerosis, but its temporal ordering is poorly understood. We aimed to determine the sequence in which grey matter regions become atrophic in multiple sclerosis and its association with disability accumulation. In this longitudinal study, we included 1417 subjects: 253 with clinically isolated syndrome, 708 with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, 128 with secondary-progressive multiple sclerosis, 125 with primary-progressive multiple sclerosis, and 203 healthy control subjects from seven European centres. Subjects underwent repeated MRI (total number of scans 3604); the mean follow-up for patients was 2.41 years (standard deviation = 1.97). Disability was scored using the Expanded Disability Status Scale. We calculated the volume of brain grey matter regions and brainstem using an unbiased within-subject template and used an established data-driven event-based model to determine the sequence of occurrence of atrophy and its uncertainty. We assigned each subject to a specific event-based model stage, based on the number of their atrophic regions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explore associations between the rate of increase in event-based model stages, and T2 lesion load, disease-modifying treatments, comorbidity, disease duration and disability accumulation. The first regions to become atrophic in patients with clinically isolated syndrome and relapse-onset multiple sclerosis were the posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus, followed by the middle cingulate cortex, brainstem and thalamus. A similar sequence of atrophy was detected in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis with the involvement of the thalamus, cuneus, precuneus, and pallidum, followed by the brainstem and posterior cingulate cortex. The cerebellum, caudate and putamen showed early atrophy in relapse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amélie eLubin
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in grey matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N=22 whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less grey matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.
Grey water characterisation and pollutant loads in an urban slum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Katukiza, A. Y.; Ronteltap, M.; Niwagaba, C. B.; Kansiime, F.; Lens, P. N. L.
2015-01-01
On-site sanitation provisions in urban slums rarely prioritise grey water management, yet it forms the largest fraction of wastewater. This study was carried out to characterise grey water and quantify its pollutant loads in Bwaise III (Uganda) and to provide data for grey water management in urban slums of developing countries. Samples were collected for analysis from ten representative households as well as from four tertiary drains and the main drainage channel for 7 months in two dry seasons. Grey water production was found to comprise 85 % of the domestic water consumption. The chemical oxygen demand concentration in the grey water generated by laundry, in the kitchen and in the bathroom was 9,225 ± 1,200 mg L-1, 71,250 ± 1,011 mg L-1 and 4,675 ± 750 mg L-1, while the BOD5 (biochemical oxygen demand) to COD ratio was 0.24 ± 0.05, 0.33 ± 0.08 and 0.31 ± 0.07, respectively. The maximum concentration of Escherichia coli and total coliforms was 2.05 9 107 cfu (100 mL)-1 and 1.75 9 108 cfu (100 mL)-1, respectively, in grey water from the bathroom, while that of Salmonella spp. was 7.32 9 106 cfu (100 mL)-1 from laundry. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed a significant difference in the concentration of COD, total suspended solids, total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total phosphorus, sodium adsorption ratio, oil and grease, and Salmonella spp. in grey water from laundry, bathroom and kitchen (p/0.05). The high loads of COD ([500 kg day-1), total suspended solids ([200 kg day-1), nutrients (8.3 kg TKN day-1 and 1.4 kg total phosphorus day-1) and microorganisms (106 to 109 cfu c-1 day-1) originating from grey water in Bwaise III show that grey water poses a threat to the environment and a risk to human health in urban slums. Therefore, there is a need to prioritise grey water treatment in urban slums of developing countries to achieve adequate sanitation.
Fabry-Perot Interferometry in the Integer and Fractional Quantum Hall Regimes
McClure, Douglas; Chang, Willy; Kou, Angela; Marcus, Charles; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken
2011-03-01
We present measurements of electronic Fabry-Perot interferometers in the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes. Two classes of resistance oscillations may be seen as a function of magnetic field and gate voltage, as we have previously reported. In small interferometers in the integer regime, oscillations of the type associated with Coulomb interaction are ubiquitous, while those consistent with single-particle Aharonov-Bohm interference are seen to co-exist in some configurations. The amplitude scaling of both types with temperature and device size is consistent with a theoretical model. Oscillations are further observed in the fractional quantum Hall regime. Here the dependence of the period on the filling factors in the constrictions and bulk of the interferometer can shed light on the effective charge of the interfering quasiparticles, but care is needed to distinguish these oscillations from those associated with integer quantum Hall states. We acknowledge funding from Microsoft Project Q and IBM.
Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Cheval, Boris; van Ruitenbeek, Peter; Levin, Oron; Renaud, Olivier; Chanal, Julien; Swinnen, Stephan P
2016-03-01
Functional and structural imaging studies have demonstrated the involvement of the brain in balance control. Nevertheless, how decisive grey matter density and white matter microstructural organisation are in predicting balance stability, and especially when linked to the effects of ageing, remains unclear. Standing balance was tested on a platform moving at different frequencies and amplitudes in 30 young and 30 older adults, with eyes open and with eyes closed. Centre of pressure variance was used as an indicator of balance instability. The mean density of grey matter and mean white matter microstructural organisation were measured using voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging, respectively. Mixed-effects models were built to analyse the extent to which age, grey matter density, and white matter microstructural organisation predicted balance instability. Results showed that both grey matter density and age independently predicted balance instability. These predictions were reinforced when the level of difficulty of the conditions increased. Furthermore, grey matter predicted balance instability beyond age and at least as consistently as age across conditions. In other words, for balance stability, the level of whole-brain grey matter density is at least as decisive as being young or old. Finally, brain grey matter appeared to be protective against falls in older adults as age increased the probability of losing balance in older adults with low, but not moderate or high grey matter density. No such results were observed for white matter microstructural organisation, thereby reinforcing the specificity of our grey matter findings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Hayakawa, Y K; Sasaki, H; Takao, H; Yoshikawa, T; Hayashi, N; Mori, H; Kunimatsu, A; Aoki, S; Ohtomo, K
2018-02-01
Previous work has shown that high body mass index (BMI) is associated with low grey matter volume. However, evidence on the relationship between waist circumference (WC) and brain volume is relatively scarce. Moreover, the influence of mild obesity (as indexed by WC and BMI) on brain volume remains unclear. This study explored the relationships between WC and BMI and grey matter volume in a large sample of Japanese adults. The participants were 792 community-dwelling adults (523 men and 269 women). Brain magnetic resonance images were collected, and the correlation between WC or BMI and global grey matter volume were analysed. The relationships between WC or BMI and regional grey matter volume were also investigated using voxel-based morphometry. Global grey matter volume was not correlated with WC or BMI. Voxel-based morphometry analysis revealed significant negative correlations between both WC and BMI and regional grey matter volume. The areas correlated with each index were more widespread in men than in women. In women, the total area of the regions significantly correlated with WC was slightly greater than that of the regions significantly correlated with BMI. Results show that both WC and BMI were inversely related to regional grey matter volume, even in Japanese adults with somewhat mild obesity. Especially in populations with less obesity, such as the female participants in current study, WC may be more sensitive than BMI as a marker of grey matter volume differences associated with obesity.
Network Model for The Problem of Integer Balancing of a Fourdimensional Matrix
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. V. Smirnov
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of integer balancing of a four-dimensional matrix is studied. The elements of the inner part (all four indices are greater than zero of the given real matrix are summed in each direction and each two- and three-dimensional section of the matrix; the total sum is also found. These sums are placed into the elements where one or more indices are equal to zero (according to the summing directions. The problem is to find an integer matrix of the same structure, which can be produced from the initial one by replacing the elements with the largest previous or the smallest following integer. At the same time, the element with four zero indices should be produced with standard rules of rounding - off. In the article the problem of finding the maximum multiple flow in the network of any natural multiplicity is also studied. There are arcs of three types: ordinary arcs, multiple arcs and multi-arcs. Each multiple and multi-arc is a union of linked arcs, which are adjusted with each other. The network constructing rules are described. The definitions of a divisible network and some associated subjects are stated. There are defined the basic principles for reducing the integer balancing problem of an -dimensional matrix ( to the problem of finding the maximum flow in a divisible multiple network of multiplicity . There are stated the rules for reducing the four-dimensional balancing problem to the maximum flow problem in the network of multiplicity 5. The algorithm of finding the maximum flow, which meets the solvability conditions for the integer balancing problem, is formulated for such a network.
The Role of Google Scholar in Evidence Reviews and Its Applicability to Grey Literature Searching.
Haddaway, Neal Robert; Collins, Alexandra Mary; Coughlin, Deborah; Kirk, Stuart
2015-01-01
Google Scholar (GS), a commonly used web-based academic search engine, catalogues between 2 and 100 million records of both academic and grey literature (articles not formally published by commercial academic publishers). Google Scholar collates results from across the internet and is free to use. As a result it has received considerable attention as a method for searching for literature, particularly in searches for grey literature, as required by systematic reviews. The reliance on GS as a standalone resource has been greatly debated, however, and its efficacy in grey literature searching has not yet been investigated. Using systematic review case studies from environmental science, we investigated the utility of GS in systematic reviews and in searches for grey literature. Our findings show that GS results contain moderate amounts of grey literature, with the majority found on average at page 80. We also found that, when searched for specifically, the majority of literature identified using Web of Science was also found using GS. However, our findings showed moderate/poor overlap in results when similar search strings were used in Web of Science and GS (10-67%), and that GS missed some important literature in five of six case studies. Furthermore, a general GS search failed to find any grey literature from a case study that involved manual searching of organisations' websites. If used in systematic reviews for grey literature, we recommend that searches of article titles focus on the first 200 to 300 results. We conclude that whilst Google Scholar can find much grey literature and specific, known studies, it should not be used alone for systematic review searches. Rather, it forms a powerful addition to other traditional search methods. In addition, we advocate the use of tools to transparently document and catalogue GS search results to maintain high levels of transparency and the ability to be updated, critical to systematic reviews.
Farace , Dominic ,; Frantzen , Jerry; Stock , Christiane; Henrot , Nathalie; Schöpfel , Joachim
2008-01-01
International audience; In 1980, some major European scientific information centres established the “System for Information on Grey Literature in Europe” (SIGLE) to provide access to European grey literature and to improve bibliographic coverage. August 23, 2006, the Luxemburg Register of Commerce and Societies published the liquidation of the association EAGLE that produced the SIGLE database until 2005. Nevertheless, the former EAGLE member consented to preserve the European co-operation fo...
Grey seal predation on forage fish in the Baltic Sea
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eero, Aro; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Aho, Teija
The mean annual growth rate of grey seal stock in the Baltic has been on average 7.5% annually during the last decade. In 2010, a total of approximately 23 100 grey seals were counted. The increase in stock size was highest in the northern areas and the predation pressure of grey seals on clupeoids...... has increased accordingly. The diet of grey seal in the Baltic consists of ca. 20 fish species. The most abundant prey items in the Baltic proper are Baltic herring, sprat, and cod, and in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay Baltic herring, Coregonus sp., Baltic salmon, and sea trout. An adult seal...... consumes on average round 4.5 kg fish per day, of which 55% are clupeoids in the Baltic Main basin and 70% in the Bothnian Sea and Bothnian Bay. According to acoustic estimates, predator– prey distribution patterns, migration patterns, and multispecies analysis (SMS), the predation effect of grey seals...
Grey water characterization and treatment for reuse in an arid environment
Smith, E.; Bani-Melhem, K.
2012-01-01
Grey water from a university facilities building in Cairo, Egypt was analysed for basic wastewater parameters. Mean concentrations were calculated based on grab samples over a 16-month period. Values for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nutrients
Neuropsychiatric symptoms and diagnosis of grey matter heterotopia: A case-based reflection
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gian Lippi
2017-03-01
Full Text Available Neuropsychiatric symptoms can be related to less common underlying neuropsychiatric conditions – in this case report, the condition discussed is that of grey matter heterotopia (GMH. The patient presented with a history of prominent aggression, impulsivity and manipulative and attention-seeking behaviour. Episodes of depression and incidents of deliberate self-harm and suicide attempts had been reported. Neuropsychiatric symptoms included anxiety, a labile mood, delusional thinking and auditory hallucinations. Testing revealed some cognitive difficulties and severe impairment of frontal lobe functions. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scan of his brain revealed the presence of GMH, which had previously been misdiagnosed as tuberous sclerosis. An MRI scan of the brain is the special investigation of choice for the correct diagnosis of GMH. The pathognomonic finding is that of heterotopic grey matter abnormally located within areas of white matter. Defective foetal neuronal migration between the third and fifth month of pregnancy can lead to GMH, which can present later on in childhood or adolescence with epilepsy, intellectual impairment or reading difficulties. During the late teenage years or early adulthood, a wide variety of neuropsychiatric symptoms may be present, which can lead to diagnostic difficulties.
Aspen Institute, 2009
2009-01-01
Beyond Grey Pinstripes is a research survey and alternative ranking of business schools that spotlights innovative full-time MBA programs leading the way in integrating social and environmental stewardship into their curriculum and scholarly research. These schools are preparing today's students--tomorrow's leaders--for future market realities by…
The potential of grey alder plantation forestry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rytter, L. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Short Rotation Forestry
1996-12-31
A survey concerning the potential use of grey alder (Alnus incana (L.) Moench.) in short rotation forestry is performed. The most important characters in this context are discussed. It is concluded that grey alder is an interesting contributor in plantation forestry, because it has a high woody biomass production, is more or less self-supporting with nitrogen, and is well adapted to the conditions in Fennoscandia and Balticum. 36 refs, 2 figs, 1 tab
Microstructure Formation and Fracturing Characteristics of Grey Cast Iron Repaired Using Laser
Liu, Dan; Shi, Yongjun
2014-01-01
The repairing technology based on laser rapid fusion is becoming an important tool for fixing grey cast iron equipment efficiently. A laser repairing protocol was developed using Fe-based alloy powders as material. The microstructure and fracturing feature of the repaired zone (RZ) were analyzed. The results showed that regionally organized RZ with good density and reliable metallurgical bond can be achieved by laser repairing. At the bottom of RZ, dendrites existed in similar direction and extended to the secondary RZ, making the grains grow extensively with inheritance with isometric grains closer to the surface substrate. The strength of the grey cast iron base material was maintained by laser repairing. The base material and RZ were combined with robust strength and fracture resistance. The prevention and deflection of cracking process were analyzed using a cracking process model and showed that the overall crack toughness of the materials increased. PMID:25032230
Open-Access Physical Activity Programs for Older Adults: A Pragmatic and Systematic Review.
Balis, Laura E; Strayer, Thomas; Ramalingam, NithyaPriya; Wilson, Meghan; Harden, Samantha M
2018-01-10
Open-access, community-based programs are recommended to assist older adults in meeting physical activity guidelines, but the characteristics, impact, and scalability of these programs is less understood. The Land-Grant University Cooperative Extension System, an organization providing education through county-based educators, functions as a delivery system for these programs. A systematic review was conducted to determine characteristics of effective older adult physical activity programs and the extent to which programs delivered in Extension employ these characteristics. A systematic review of peer-reviewed and grey literature was conducted from August 2016 to February 2017. The review was limited to open-access (available to all), community-based physical activity interventions for older adults (≥65 years of age). The peer-reviewed literature search was conducted in PubMed and EBSCOhost; the grey literature search for Extension interventions was conducted through Extension websites, Land-Grant Impacts, and the Journal of Extension. Sixteen peer-reviewed studies and 17 grey literature sources met inclusion criteria and were analyzed. Peer-reviewed and Extension programs were similar in their limited use of behavioral theories and group-based strategies. Compared to Extension programs, those in the peer-reviewed literature were more likely to use a combination of physical activity components and be delivered by trained professionals. The results indicate notable differences between peer-reviewed literature and Extension programs and present an opportunity for Extension programs to more effectively use evidence-based program characteristics, including behavioral theories and group dynamics, a combination of physical activity components, and educator/agent-trained delivery agents. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Triangular Numbers, Gaussian Integers, and KenKen
Watkins, John J.
2012-01-01
Latin squares form the basis for the recreational puzzles sudoku and KenKen. In this article we show how useful several ideas from number theory are in solving a KenKen puzzle. For example, the simple notion of triangular number is surprisingly effective. We also introduce a variation of KenKen that uses the Gaussian integers in order to…
Paquola, Casey; Bennett, Maxwell; Lagopoulos, Jim
2018-05-15
Structural covariance networks (SCNs) may offer unique insights into the developmental impact of childhood maltreatment because they are thought to reflect coordinated maturation of distinct grey matter regions. T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired from 121 young people with emerging mental illness. Diffusion weighted and resting state functional imaging was also acquired from a random subset of the participants (n=62). Ten study-specific SCNs were identified using a whole brain grey matter independent component analysis. The effects of childhood maltreatment and age on average grey matter density and the expression of each SCN were calculated. Childhood maltreatment was linked to age-related decreases in grey matter density across a SCN that overlapped with the default mode and fronto-parietal networks. Resting state functional connectivity and structural connectivity were calculated in the study-specific SCN and across the whole brain. Grey matter covariance was significantly correlated with rsFC across the SCN, and rsFC fully mediated the relationship between grey matter covariance and structural connectivity in the non-maltreated group. A unique association of grey matter covariance with structural connectivity was detected amongst individuals with a history of childhood maltreatment. Perturbation of grey matter development across the default mode and fronto-parietal networks following childhood maltreatment may have significant implications for mental well-being, given the networks' roles in self-referential activity. Cross-modal comparisons suggest reduced grey matter following childhood maltreatment could arise from deficient functional activity earlier in life.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jiao, Yi, E-mail: jiaoyi@ihep.ac.cn; Duan, Zhe
2017-01-01
In a diffraction-limited storage ring, half integer resonances can have strong effects on the beam dynamics, associated with the large detuning terms from the strong focusing and strong sextupoles as required for an ultralow emittance. In this study, the limitation of half integer resonances on the available momentum acceptance (MA) was statistically analyzed based on one design of the High Energy Photon Source (HEPS). It was found that the probability of MA reduction due to crossing of half integer resonances is closely correlated with the level of beta beats at the nominal tunes, but independent of the error sources. The analysis indicated that for the presented HEPS lattice design, the rms amplitude of beta beats should be kept below 1.5% horizontally and 2.5% vertically to reach a small MA reduction probability of about 1%.
A Survey of African Grey Parrots ( Psittacus erithacus ) Trade and ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Intensive field based African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) trade and trafficking survey lasting 14 days was undertaken on the request of the Pheasant Conservation Group; International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN), to determine the existence or non-existence of parrots trapping, ...
Integer Quantum Magnon Hall Plateau-Plateau Transition in a Spin Ice Model
Xu, Baolong; Ohtsuki, Tomi; Shindou, Ryuichi
2016-01-01
Low-energy magnon bands in a two-dimensional spin ice model become integer quantum magnon Hall bands. By calculating the localization length and the two-terminal conductance of magnon transport, we show that the magnon bands with disorders undergo a quantum phase transition from an integer quantum magnon Hall regime to a conventional magnon localized regime. Finite size scaling analysis as well as a critical conductance distribution shows that the quantum critical point belongs to the same un...
Voxel-wise grey matter asymmetry analysis in left- and right-handers.
Ocklenburg, Sebastian; Friedrich, Patrick; Güntürkün, Onur; Genç, Erhan
2016-10-28
Handedness is thought to originate in the brain, but identifying its structural correlates in the cortex has yielded surprisingly incoherent results. One idea proclaimed by several authors is that structural grey matter asymmetries might underlie handedness. While some authors have found significant associations with handedness in different brain areas (e.g. in the central sulcus and precentral sulcus), others have failed to identify such associations. One method used by many researchers to determine structural grey matter asymmetries is voxel based morphometry (VBM). However, it has recently been suggested that the standard VBM protocol might not be ideal to assess structural grey matter asymmetries, as it establishes accurate voxel-wise correspondence across individuals but not across both hemispheres. This could potentially lead to biased and incoherent results. Recently, a new toolbox specifically geared at assessing structural asymmetries and involving accurate voxel-wise correspondence across hemispheres has been published [F. Kurth, C. Gaser, E. Luders. A 12-step user guide for analyzing voxel-wise gray matter asymmetries in statistical parametric mapping (SPM), Nat Protoc 10 (2015), 293-304]. Here, we used this new toolbox to re-assess grey matter asymmetry differences in left- vs. right-handers and linked them to quantitative measures of hand preference and hand skill. While we identified several significant left-right asymmetries in the overall sample, no difference between left- and right-handers reached significance after correction for multiple comparisons. These findings indicate that the structural brain correlates of handedness are unlikely to be rooted in macroscopic grey matter area differences that can be assessed with VBM. Future studies should focus on other potential structural correlates of handedness, e.g. structural white matter asymmetries. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Quadratic Sieve integer factorization using Hadoop
Ghebregiorgish, Semere Tsehaye
2012-01-01
Master's thesis in Computer Science Integer factorization problem is one of the most important parts in the world of cryptography. The security of the widely-used public-key cryptographic algorithm, RSA [1], and the Blum Blum Shub cryptographic pseudorandom number generator [2] heavily depend on the presumed difficulty of factoring a number to its prime constituents. As the size of the number to be factored gets larger, the difficulty of the problem increases enormously. Thi...
Bural, Gonca; Torigian, Drew; Basu, Sandip; Houseni, Mohamed; Zhuge, Ying; Rubello, Domenico; Udupa, Jayaram; Alavi, Abass
2015-12-01
Our aim was to explore a novel quantitative method [based upon an MRI-based image segmentation that allows actual calculation of grey matter, white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes] for overcoming the difficulties associated with conventional techniques for measuring actual metabolic activity of the grey matter. We included four patients with normal brain MRI and fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG)-PET scans (two women and two men; mean age 46±14 years) in this analysis. The time interval between the two scans was 0-180 days. We calculated the volumes of grey matter, white matter and CSF by using a novel segmentation technique applied to the MRI images. We measured the mean standardized uptake value (SUV) representing the whole metabolic activity of the brain from the F-FDG-PET images. We also calculated the white matter SUV from the upper transaxial slices (centrum semiovale) of the F-FDG-PET images. The whole brain volume was calculated by summing up the volumes of the white matter, grey matter and CSF. The global cerebral metabolic activity was calculated by multiplying the mean SUV with total brain volume. The whole brain white matter metabolic activity was calculated by multiplying the mean SUV for the white matter by the white matter volume. The global cerebral metabolic activity only reflects those of the grey matter and the white matter, whereas that of the CSF is zero. We subtracted the global white matter metabolic activity from that of the whole brain, resulting in the global grey matter metabolism alone. We then divided the grey matter global metabolic activity by grey matter volume to accurately calculate the SUV for the grey matter alone. The brain volumes ranged between 1546 and 1924 ml. The mean SUV for total brain was 4.8-7. Total metabolic burden of the brain ranged from 5565 to 9617. The mean SUV for white matter was 2.8-4.1. On the basis of these measurements we generated the grey matter SUV, which ranged from 8.1 to 11.3. The
Grey literature in meta-analyses of randomized trials of health care interventions.
Hopewell, S; McDonald, S; Clarke, M; Egger, M
2007-04-18
The inclusion of grey literature (i.e. literature that has not been formally published) in systematic reviews may help to overcome some of the problems of publication bias, which can arise due to the selective availability of data. To review systematically research studies, which have investigated the impact of grey literature in meta-analyses of randomized trials of health care interventions. We searched the Cochrane Methodology Register (The Cochrane Library Issue 3, 2005), MEDLINE (1966 to 20 May 2005), the Science Citation Index (June 2005) and contacted researchers who may have carried out relevant studies. A study was considered eligible for this review if it compared the effect of the inclusion and exclusion of grey literature on the results of a cohort of meta-analyses of randomized trials. Data were extracted from each report independently by two reviewers. The main outcome measure was an estimate of the impact of trials from the grey literature on the pooled effect estimates of the meta-analyses. Information was also collected on the area of health care, the number of meta-analyses, the number of trials, the number of trial participants, the year of publication of the trials, the language and country of publication of the trials, the number and type of grey and published literature, and methodological quality. Five studies met the inclusion criteria. All five studies showed that published trials showed an overall greater treatment effect than grey trials. This difference was statistically significant in one of the five studies. Data could be combined for three of the five studies. This showed that, on average, published trials showed a 9% greater treatment effect than grey trials (ratio of odds ratios for grey versus published trials 1.09; 95% CI 1.03-1.16). Overall there were more published trials included in the meta-analyses than grey trials (median 224 (IQR 108-365) versus 45(IQR 40-102)). Published trials had more participants on average. The most
Ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of grey water: particle size effects.
Winward, G P; Avery, L M; Stephenson, T; Jefferson, B
2008-02-01
The impact of water quality on the ultraviolet (UV) disinfection of grey water was investigated with reference to urban water reuse. Direct UV disinfection of grey water did not meet the stringent California State Title 22 criteria for unrestricted urban water reuse due to the presence of particulate material ranging from or = 2000 microm in size. Grey water was manipulated by settling to produce fractions of varying particle size distributions and blending was employed post-disinfection to extract particle-associated coliforms (PACs). The efficacy of UV disinfection was found to be linked to the particle size of the grey water fractions. The larger particle size fractions with a mean particle size of 262 microm and above were observed to shield more coliforms from UV light than did the smaller particles with a mean particle size below 119 microm. Up to 70% of total coliforms in the larger particle size fractions were particle-associated following a UV dose (fluence) of 260 mJ.cm(-2) and would remain undetected by standard coliform enumeration techniques. Implications for urban water reuse are discussed and recommendations made for grey water treatment to ensure removal of particle-associated indicator bacteria and pathogens prior to UV disinfection.
Research on Human-Error Factors of Civil Aircraft Pilots Based On Grey Relational Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guo Yundong
2018-01-01
Full Text Available In consideration of the situation that civil aviation accidents involve many human-error factors and show the features of typical grey systems, an index system of civil aviation accident human-error factors is built using human factor analysis and classification system model. With the data of accidents happened worldwide between 2008 and 2011, the correlation between human-error factors can be analyzed quantitatively using the method of grey relational analysis. Research results show that the order of main factors affecting pilot human-error factors is preconditions for unsafe acts, unsafe supervision, organization and unsafe acts. The factor related most closely with second-level indexes and pilot human-error factors is the physical/mental limitations of pilots, followed by supervisory violations. The relevancy between the first-level indexes and the corresponding second-level indexes and the relevancy between second-level indexes can also be analyzed quantitatively.
Internet trade and threat of the grey area
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Ćwiąkała-Małys
2012-06-01
Full Text Available In recent years it has been of great interest to tax, fiscal and customs authorities how trade and services provided over the Internet develop. A long time ago it was stated that the intense development of the Internet contributes to the expansion of the grey area. The grey area’s functioning is very unfavourable to the state economy, because although it creates GDP, it does not directly support the state budget. When considering reduced inflows to the state budget and increases in the deficit, it is reasonable to take any and all actions in order to limit the grey area in each field of social and economic life. Thus, the interest of specialized public authorities in this field should not raise any concerns.
Selecting Tools to Model Integer and Binomial Multiplication
Pratt, Sarah Smitherman; Eddy, Colleen M.
2017-01-01
Mathematics teachers frequently provide concrete manipulatives to students during instruction; however, the rationale for using certain manipulatives in conjunction with concepts may not be explored. This article focuses on area models that are currently used in classrooms to provide concrete examples of integer and binomial multiplication. The…
Core barrier formation near integer q surfaces in DIII-D
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Austin, M. E.; Gentle, K. W.; Burrell, K. H.; Waltz, R. E.; Gohil, P.; Greenfield, C. M.; Groebner, R. J.; Petty, C. C.; Prater, R.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Luo, Y.; Kinsey, J. E.; Makowski, M. A.; McKee, G. R.; Shafer, M. W.; Nazikian, R.; Rhodes, T. L.; Van Zeeland, M. A.
2006-01-01
Recent DIII-D experiments have significantly improved the understanding of internal transport barriers (ITBs) that are triggered close to the time when an integer value of the minimum in q is crossed. While this phenomenon has been observed on many tokamaks, the extensive transport and fluctuation diagnostics on DIII-D have permitted a detailed study of the generation mechanisms of q-triggered ITBs as pertaining to turbulence suppression dynamics, shear flows, and energetic particle modes. In these discharges, the evolution of the q profile is measured using motional Stark effect polarimetry and the integer q min crossings are further pinpointed in time by the observation of Alfven cascades. High time resolution measurements of the ion and electron temperatures and the toroidal rotation show that the start of improved confinement is simultaneous in all three channels, and that this event precedes the traversal of integer q min by 5-20 ms. There is no significant low-frequency magnetohydrodynamic activity prior to or just after the crossing of the integer q min and hence magnetic reconnection is determined not to be the precipitant of the confinement change. Instead, results from the GYRO code point to the effects of zonal flows near low order rational q values as playing a role in ITB triggering. A reduction in local turbulent fluctuations is observed at the start of the temperature rise and, concurrently, an increase in turbulence poloidal flow velocity and flow shear is measured with the beam emission spectroscopy diagnostic. For the case of a transition to an enduring internal barrier the fluctuation level remains at a reduced amplitude. The timing and nature of the temperature, rotation, and fluctuation changes leading to internal barriers suggests transport improvement due to increased shear flow arising from the zonal flow structures
Shyu, H. C.; Reed, I. S.; Truong, T. K.; Hsu, I. S.; Chang, J. J.
1987-01-01
A quadratic-polynomial Fermat residue number system (QFNS) has been used to compute complex integer multiplications. The advantage of such a QFNS is that a complex integer multiplication requires only two integer multiplications. In this article, a new type Fermat number multiplier is developed which eliminates the initialization condition of the previous method. It is shown that the new complex multiplier can be implemented on a single VLSI chip. Such a chip is designed and fabricated in CMOS-Pw technology.
Buchmann, J.; Cabarcas, D.; Göpfert, F.; Hülsing, A.T.; Weiden, P.; Lange, T.; Lauter, K.; Lisonek, P.
2014-01-01
Several lattice-based cryptosystems require to sample from a discrete Gaussian distribution over the integers. Existing methods to sample from such a distribution either need large amounts of memory or they are very slow. In this paper we explore a different method that allows for a flexible
Pinning mode of integer quantum Hall Wigner crystal of skyrmions
Zhu, Han; Sambandamurthy, G.; Chen, Y. P.; Jiang, P.-H.; Engel, L. W.; Tsui, D. C.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2009-03-01
Just away from integer Landau level (LL) filling factors ν, the dilute quasi-particles/holes at the partially filled LL form an integer-quantum-Hall Wigner crystal, which exhibits microwave pinning mode resonances [1]. Due to electron-electron interaction, it was predicted that the elementary excitation around ν= 1 is not a single spin flip, but a larger-scale spin texture, known as a skyrmion [2]. We have compared the pinning mode resonances [1] of integer quantum Hall Wigner crystals formed in the partly filled LL just away from ν= 1 and ν= 2, in the presence of an in-plane magnetic field. As an in-plane field is applied, the peak frequencies of the resonances near ν= 1 increase, while the peak frequencies below ν= 2 show neligible dependence on in-plane field. We interpret this observation as due to a skyrmion crystal phase around ν= 1 and a single-hole Wigner crystal phase below ν= 2. The in-plane field increases the Zeeman gap and causes shrinking of the skyrmion size toward single spin flips. [1] Yong P. Chen et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 016801 (2003). [2] S. L. Sondhi et al., Phys. Rev. B 47, 16 419 (1993); L. Brey et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2562 (1995).
Note on Integer-Valued Bilinear Time Series Models
Drost, F.C.; van den Akker, R.; Werker, B.J.M.
2007-01-01
Summary. This note reconsiders the nonnegative integer-valued bilinear processes introduced by Doukhan, Latour, and Oraichi (2006). Using a hidden Markov argument, we extend their result of the existence of a stationary solution for the INBL(1,0,1,1) process to the class of superdiagonal INBL(p; q;
Chen, K.; Y Zhang, T.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, Z. R.
2017-12-01
Grey system theory regards uncertain system in which information is known partly and unknown partly as research object, extracts useful information from part known, and thereby revealing the potential variation rule of the system. In order to research the applicability of data-driven modelling method in melting peak temperature (T m) fitting and prediction of polypropylene (PP) during ultraviolet radiation aging, the T m of homo-polypropylene after different ultraviolet radiation exposure time investigated by differential scanning calorimeter was fitted and predicted by grey GM(1, 1) model based on grey system theory. The results show that the T m of PP declines with the prolong of aging time, and fitting and prediction equation obtained by grey GM(1, 1) model is T m = 166.567472exp(-0.00012t). Fitting effect of the above equation is excellent and the maximum relative error between prediction value and actual value of T m is 0.32%. Grey system theory needs less original data, has high prediction accuracy, and can be used to predict aging behaviour of PP.
Effect of titanium on the near eutectic grey iron
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Moumeni, Elham; Tiedje, Niels Skat; Hattel, Jesper Henri
The effect of Titanium on the microstructure of grey iron was investigated experimentally in this work. Tensile test bars of grey cast iron of near eutectic alloys containing 0.01, 0.1, 0.26 and 0.35% Ti, respectively were made in green sand moulds. Chemical analysis, metallographic investigation...
Chlorine disinfection of grey water for reuse: effect of organics and particles.
Winward, Gideon P; Avery, Lisa M; Stephenson, Tom; Jefferson, Bruce
2008-01-01
Adequate disinfection of grey water prior to reuse is important to prevent the potential transmission of disease-causing microorganisms. Chlorine is a widely utilised disinfectant and as such is a leading contender for disinfection of grey water intended for reuse. This study examined the impact of organics and particles on chlorine disinfection of grey water, measured by total coliform inactivation. The efficacy of disinfection was most closely linked with particle size. Larger particles shielded total coliforms from inactivation and disinfection efficacy decreased with increasing particle size. Blending to extract particle-associated coliforms (PACs) following chlorine disinfection revealed that up to 91% of total coliforms in chlorinated grey water were particle associated. The organic concentration of grey water affected chlorine demand but did not influence the disinfection resistance of total coliforms when a free chlorine residual was maintained. Implications for urban water reuse are discussed and it is recommended that grey water treatment systems target suspended solids removal to ensure removal of PACs prior to disinfection.
Transcriptome analysis of grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) after challenge with Lactococcus garvieae.
Byadgi, Omkar; Chen, Yao-Chung; Barnes, Andrew C; Tsai, Ming-An; Wang, Pei-Chyi; Chen, Shih-Chu
2016-11-01
Grey mullet (Mugil cephalus) is an economically important fish species in Taiwan mariculture industry. Moreover, grey mullet are common hosts of a bacterial infection by Lactococcus garvieae. However, until now the information related to the immune system of grey mullet is unclear. Therefore, to understand the molecular basis underlying the host immune response to L. garvieae infection, Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 was used to analyse the head kidney and spleen transcriptome of infected grey mullet. De novo assembly of paired-end reads yielded 55,203 unigenes. Comparative analysis of the expression profiles between bacterial challenge fish and control fish identified a total of 7192 from head kidney and 7280 in spleen differentially expressed genes (P grey mullet to Lactococcus garvieae, carrying out detailed functional analysis of these genes and developing strategies for efficient immune protection against infections in grey mullet. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhao Xinwen; Ren Xin
2014-01-01
In order to further reduce the misoperation after the faults occurring of nuclear-powered system in marine, the model based on weighted degree of grey incidence of optimized entropy and fault diagnosis system are proposed, and some simulation experiments about the typical faults of steam generator of nuclear-powered system in marine are conducted. And the results show that the diagnosis system based on improved degree of grey incidence model is more stable and its conclusion is right, and can satisfy diagnosis in real time, and higher faults subjection degrees resolving power can be achieved. (authors)
Longitudinal grey and white matter changes in frontotemporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lars Frings
Full Text Available Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD and Alzheimer's disease (AD dementia are characterised by progressive brain atrophy. Longitudinal MRI volumetry may help to characterise ongoing structural degeneration and support the differential diagnosis of dementia subtypes. Automated, observer-independent atlas-based MRI volumetry was applied to analyse 102 MRI data sets from 15 bvFTD, 14 AD, and 10 healthy elderly control participants with consecutive scans over at least 12 months. Anatomically defined targets were chosen a priori as brain structures of interest. Groups were compared regarding volumes at clinic presentation and annual change rates. Baseline volumes, especially of grey matter compartments, were significantly reduced in bvFTD and AD patients. Grey matter volumes of the caudate and the gyrus rectus were significantly smaller in bvFTD than AD. The bvFTD group could be separated from AD on the basis of caudate volume with high accuracy (79% cases correct. Annual volume decline was markedly larger in bvFTD and AD than controls, predominantly in white matter of temporal structures. Decline in grey matter volume of the lateral orbitofrontal gyrus separated bvFTD from AD and controls. Automated longitudinal MRI volumetry discriminates bvFTD from AD. In particular, greater reduction of orbitofrontal grey matter and temporal white matter structures after 12 months is indicative of bvFTD.
Experimental Grey Box Model Identification of an Active Gas Bearing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Pierart Vásquez, Fabián Gonzalo; Niemann, Hans Henrik
2014-01-01
in a dynamic model of an active gas bearing and subsequent control loop design. A grey box model is determined based on experiments where piezo actuated valves are used to perturb the journal and hence excite the rotor-bearing system. Such modelling from actuator to output is shown to effciently support...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kramer, T.
2006-01-01
I review some aspects of an alternative model of the quantum Hall effect, which is not based on the presence of disorder potentials. Instead, a quantization of the electronic drift current in the presence of crossed electric and magnetic fields is employed to construct a non-linear transport theory. Another important ingredient of the alternative theory is the coupling of the two-dimensional electron gas to the leads and the applied voltages. By working in a picture where the external voltages fix the chemical potential in the 2D subsystem, the experimentally observed linear relation between the voltage and the location of the quantum Hall plateaus finds an natural explanation. Also, the classical Hall effect emerges as a natural limit of the quantum Hall effect. For low temperatures (or high currents), a non-integer substructure splits higher Landau levels into sublevels. The appearance of substructure and non-integer plateaus in the resistivity is not linked to electron-electron interactions, but caused by the presence of a (linear) electric field. Some of the resulting fractions correspond exactly to half-integer plateaus. (Author)
2011-01-01
Background Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. Methods A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Results Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Conclusion Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are
The Role of Google Scholar in Evidence Reviews and Its Applicability to Grey Literature Searching
Haddaway, Neal Robert; Collins, Alexandra Mary; Coughlin, Deborah; Kirk, Stuart
2015-01-01
Google Scholar (GS), a commonly used web-based academic search engine, catalogues between 2 and 100 million records of both academic and grey literature (articles not formally published by commercial academic publishers). Google Scholar collates results from across the internet and is free to use. As a result it has received considerable attention as a method for searching for literature, particularly in searches for grey literature, as required by systematic reviews. The reliance on GS as a standalone resource has been greatly debated, however, and its efficacy in grey literature searching has not yet been investigated. Using systematic review case studies from environmental science, we investigated the utility of GS in systematic reviews and in searches for grey literature. Our findings show that GS results contain moderate amounts of grey literature, with the majority found on average at page 80. We also found that, when searched for specifically, the majority of literature identified using Web of Science was also found using GS. However, our findings showed moderate/poor overlap in results when similar search strings were used in Web of Science and GS (10–67%), and that GS missed some important literature in five of six case studies. Furthermore, a general GS search failed to find any grey literature from a case study that involved manual searching of organisations’ websites. If used in systematic reviews for grey literature, we recommend that searches of article titles focus on the first 200 to 300 results. We conclude that whilst Google Scholar can find much grey literature and specific, known studies, it should not be used alone for systematic review searches. Rather, it forms a powerful addition to other traditional search methods. In addition, we advocate the use of tools to transparently document and catalogue GS search results to maintain high levels of transparency and the ability to be updated, critical to systematic reviews. PMID:26379270
Hoffmann, Kathryn; Wagner, Gernot; Apfalter, Petra; Maier, Manfred
2011-11-28
Antibiotic resistance is an increasing challenge for health care services worldwide. While up to 90% of antibiotics are being prescribed in the outpatient sector recommendations for the treatment of community-acquired infections are usually based on resistance findings from hospitalized patients. In context of the EU-project called "APRES - the appropriateness of prescribing antibiotic in primary health care in Europe with respect to antibiotic resistance" it was our aim to gain detailed information about the resistance data from Austria in both the scientific and the grey literature. A systematic review was performed including scientific and grey literature published between 2000 and 2010. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were defined and the review process followed published recommendations. Seventeen scientific articles and 23 grey literature documents could be found. In contrast to the grey literature, the scientific publications describe only a small part of the resistance situation in the primary health care sector in Austria. Merely half of these publications contain data from the ambulatory sector exclusively but these data are older than ten years, are very heterogeneous concerning the observed time period, the number and origin of the isolates and the kind of bacteria analysed. The grey literature yields more comprehensive and up-to-date information of the content of interest. These sources are available in German only and are not easily accessible. The resistance situation described in the grey literature can be summarized as rather stable over the last two years. For Escherichia coli e.g. the highest antibiotic resistance rates can be seen with fluorochiniolones (19%) and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (27%). Comprehensive and up-to-date antibiotic resistance data of different pathogens isolated from the community level in Austria are presented. They could be found mainly in the grey literature, only few are published in peer-reviewed journals. The grey
An Analysis of Bank Service Satisfaction Based on Quantile Regression and Grey Relational Analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wen-Tsao Pan
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Bank service satisfaction is vital to the success of a bank. In this paper, we propose to use the grey relational analysis to gauge the levels of service satisfaction of the banks. With the grey relational analysis, we compared the effects of different variables on service satisfaction. We gave ranks to the banks according to their levels of service satisfaction. We further used the quantile regression model to find the variables that affected the satisfaction of a customer at a specific quantile of satisfaction level. The result of the quantile regression analysis provided a bank manager with information to formulate policies to further promote satisfaction of the customers at different quantiles of satisfaction level. We also compared the prediction accuracies of the regression models at different quantiles. The experiment result showed that, among the seven quantile regression models, the median regression model has the best performance in terms of RMSE, RTIC, and CE performance measures.
Energy Coordinative Optimization of Wind-Storage-Load Microgrids Based on Short-Term Prediction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changbin Hu
2015-02-01
Full Text Available According to the topological structure of wind-storage-load complementation microgrids, this paper proposes a method for energy coordinative optimization which focuses on improvement of the economic benefits of microgrids in the prediction framework. First of all, the external characteristic mathematical model of distributed generation (DG units including wind turbines and storage batteries are established according to the requirements of the actual constraints. Meanwhile, using the minimum consumption costs from the external grid as the objective function, a grey prediction model with residual modification is introduced to output the predictive wind turbine power and load at specific periods. Second, based on the basic framework of receding horizon optimization, an intelligent genetic algorithm (GA is applied to figure out the optimum solution in the predictive horizon for the complex non-linear coordination control model of microgrids. The optimum results of the GA are compared with the receding solution of mixed integer linear programming (MILP. The obtained results show that the method is a viable approach for energy coordinative optimization of microgrid systems for energy flow and reasonable schedule. The effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method is verified by examples.
Constitutive activation of the ERK pathway in melanoma and skin melanocytes in Grey horses.
Jiang, Lin; Campagne, Cécile; Sundström, Elisabeth; Sousa, Pedro; Imran, Saima; Seltenhammer, Monika; Pielberg, Gerli; Olsson, Mats J; Egidy, Giorgia; Andersson, Leif; Golovko, Anna
2014-11-21
Constitutive activation of the ERK pathway, occurring in the vast majority of melanocytic neoplasms, has a pivotal role in melanoma development. Different mechanisms underlie this activation in different tumour settings. The Grey phenotype in horses, caused by a 4.6 kb duplication in intron 6 of Syntaxin 17 (STX17), is associated with a very high incidence of cutaneous melanoma, but the molecular mechanism behind the melanomagenesis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the involvement of the ERK pathway in melanoma development in Grey horses. Grey horse melanoma tumours, cell lines and normal skin melanocytes were analyzed with help of indirect immunofluorescence and immunoblotting for the expression of phospho-ERK1/2 in comparison to that in non-grey horse and human counterparts. The mutational status of BRAF, RAS, GNAQ, GNA11 and KIT genes in Grey horse melanomas was determined by direct sequencing. The effect of RAS, RAF and PI3K/AKT pathways on the activation of the ERK signaling in Grey horse melanoma cells was investigated with help of specific inhibitors and immunoblotting. Individual roles of RAF and RAS kinases on the ERK activation were examined using si-RNA based approach and immunoblotting. We found that the ERK pathway is constitutively activated in Grey horse melanoma tumours and cell lines in the absence of somatic activating mutations in BRAF, RAS, GNAQ, GNA11 and KIT genes or alterations in the expression of the main components of the pathway. The pathway is mitogenic and is mediated by BRAF, CRAF and KRAS kinases. Importantly, we found high activation of the ERK pathway also in epidermal melanocytes, suggesting a general predisposition to melanomagenesis in these horses. These findings demonstrate that the presence of the intronic 4.6 kb duplication in STX17 is strongly associated with constitutive activation of the ERK pathway in melanocytic cells in Grey horses in the absence of somatic mutations commonly linked to the activation of this
Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Treatment for Grey Cotton Knitted Fabric
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chi-wai Kan
2018-01-01
Full Text Available 100% grey cotton knitted fabric contains impurities and yellowness and needs to be prepared for processing to make it suitable for coloration and finishing. Therefore, conventionally 100% grey cotton knitted fabric undergoes a process of scouring and bleaching, which involves the use of large amounts of water and chemicals, in order to remove impurities and yellowness. Due to increased environmental awareness, pursuing a reduction of water and chemicals is a current trend in textile processing. In this study, we explore the possibility of using atmospheric pressure plasma as a dry process to treat 100% grey cotton knitted fabric (single jersey and interlock before processing. Experimental results reveal that atmospheric pressure plasma treatment can effectively remove impurities from 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics and significantly improve its water absorption property. On the other hand, if 100% grey cotton knitted fabrics are pretreated with plasma and then undergo a normal scouring process, the treatment time is reduced. In addition, the surface morphological and chemical changes in plasma-treated fabrics were studied and compared with the conventionally treated fabrics using scanning electron microscope (SEM, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy-attenuated total reflection (FTIR-ATR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The decrease in carbon content, as shown in XPS, reveal the removal of surface impurities. The oxygen-to-carbon (O/C ratios of the plasma treated knitted fabrics reveal enhanced hydrophilicity.
Grey Literature Between Tradition and Innovation: Is There a Continuum?
Pardelli, Gabriella; Goggi, Sara; Sassi, Manuela
2012-01-01
This study wants to explore ways of social media communication for Grey Literature. In particular it describes the role of social media in relation with traditional channels and how social media applications can be used for Grey.
PRP: a FORTRAN IV interactive plotting program
Andrew, A. S.; Linde, J.
A computer program, PRP, has been designed to plot any arithmetic combination selected from a set of major and trace element data on a y- x graph. y and x are defined and entered as a program string (y, x) which is interpreted sequentially. Operators ( +, -, ∗, /, ( unary) , square root, log 10, In c, antilog 10, exponential, integer, absolute value, (,),,) and integer or real numbers may be included. Axis lengths and scales are determined by the user. Five different plotting symbols are available.
Dynamic Modeling of Steam Condenser and Design of PI Controller Based on Grey Wolf Optimizer
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Shu-Xia Li
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Shell-and-tube condenser is a heat exchanger for cooling steam with high temperature and pressure, which is one of the main kinds of heat exchange equipment in thermal, nuclear, and marine power plant. Based on the lumped parameter modeling method, the dynamic mathematical model of the simplified steam condenser is established. Then, the pressure PI control system of steam condenser based on the Matlab/Simulink simulation platform is designed. In order to obtain better performance, a new metaheuristic intelligent algorithm, grey wolf optimizer (GWO, is used to realize the fine-tuning of PI controller parameters. On the other hand, the Z-N engineering tuning method, genetic algorithm, and particle swarm algorithm are adopted for tuning PI controller parameters and compared with GWO algorithm. Simulation results show that GWO algorithm has better control performance than other four algorithms.
Grey matter changes of the pain matrix in patients with burning mouth syndrome.
Sinding, Charlotte; Gransjøen, Anne Mari; Schlumberger, Gina; Grushka, Miriam; Frasnelli, Johannes; Singh, Preet Bano
2016-04-01
Burning mouth syndrome (BMS) is characterized by a burning sensation in the mouth, usually in the absence of clinical and laboratory findings. Latest findings indicate that BMS could result from neuropathic trigeminal conditions. While many investigations have focused on the periphery, very few have examined possible central dysfunctions. To highlight changes of the central system of subjects with BMS, we analysed the grey matter concentration in 12 subjects using voxel-based morphometry. Data were compared with a control group (Ct). To better understand the brain mechanisms underlying BMS, the grey matter concentration of patients was also compared with those of dysgeusic patients (Dys). Dysgeusia is another oral dysfunction condition, characterized by a distorted sense of taste and accompanied by a reduced taste function. We found that a major part of the 'pain matrix' presented modifications of the grey matter concentration in subjects with BMS. Six regions out of eight were affected [anterior and posterior cingulate gyrus, lobules of the cerebellum, insula/frontal operculum, inferior temporal area, primary motor cortex, dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC)]. In the anterior cingulate gyrus, the lobules of the cerebellum, the inferior temporal lobe and the DLPFC, pain intensity correlated with grey matter concentration. Dys also presented changes in grey matter concentration but in different areas of the brain. Our results suggest that a deficiency in the control of pain could in part be a cause of BMS and that BMS and dysgeusia conditions are not linked to similar structural changes in the brain. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Raju, Ch.; Suresh, Ch.
2017-08-01
The present study aims to compare the conventional cutting inserts with wiper cutting inserts during the hard turning of AISI 4340 steel at different workpiece hardness. Type of insert, hardness, cutting speed, feed, and depth of cut are taken as process parameters. Taguchi’s L18 orthogonal array was used to conduct the experimental tests. Parametric analysis carried in order to know the influence of each process parameter on the three important Surface Roughness Characteristics (Ra, Rz, and Rt) and Material Removal Rate. Taguchi based Grey Relational Analysis (GRA) used to optimize the process parameters for individual response and multi-response outputs. Additionally, the analysis of variance (ANOVA) is also applied to identify the most significant factor.
WorldWideScience.org: Bringing Light to Grey
Hitson, Brian A. (OSTI-DOE); Johnson, Lorrie A. (OSTI-DOE); GreyNet, Grey Literature Network Service
2008-01-01
WorldWideScience.org and its governance structure, the WorldWideScience Alliance, are putting a brighter spotlight on grey literature. Through this new tool, grey literature is getting broader exposure to audiences all over the world. Improved access to and sharing of research information is the key to accelerating progress and breakthroughs in any field, especially science. Includes: Conference preprint, Powerpoint presentation, Abstract and Biographical notes, Pratt student commentary ...